Goat semen collection is a process that aims to collect the male gametes which are emitted by ruminants (like goats) during their sexual arousal. The animal can be standing or lying in the same way as for artificial insemination.
Goat semen can also be collected by a human. In order to produce high-quality goat semen, it is essential that the goat semen collector does not contaminate the sperm sample. To avoid contamination, all goat semen collectors must:
- wash their hands thoroughly before starting
- wear gloves
- wear a face shield or safety glasses (if desired)
- wear a mask or dustproof hat
You may be wondering how to collect goat sperm. In this article, we’ll discuss the requirements, methods, and equipment you’ll need. We’ll also discuss the best storage solution for your sperm. Read on to learn more. Once you have collected your sperm, you can start processing them for fertilization. Keeping them frozen is another important consideration, especially if you’re planning to sell them.
Requirements for Goat Sperm Collection
The requirements for collecting goat sperm and the method for evaluating its quality are discussed in this manuscript. A recent study reveals that temperature and time are important factors in the quality of semen. The pH of ejaculates has a strong relationship with the time of examination. When examined at 37 degC, ejaculates showed a decrease in pH. Consequently, it is important to process the sperm as soon as possible.
The examination time point influences raw sperm viability and motility. However, handling temperatures did not influence the results. Nevertheless, goat semen can tolerate room temperature for up to 10 minutes before examination. This time point also influences the pH and fast motility of sperm. Generally, the temperature at which goat sperm is examined should be 20 degC or above. The temperature should be uniform to ensure similar results.
In addition, semen that is sold abroad must meet a set of health requirements. The animal should be tested for infectious disease before entering the collection facility. Additionally, the semen must pass an inspection conducted by a veterinary professional. It is not allowed to be exported until it meets the requirements of the CSS. Moreover, goats collected for semen must undergo quarantine for 60 days before they can be used for domestic use.
To test the viability and integrity of sperm, two elite Simmental bulls and three healthy male Kacang goats were raised on the Teaching Farm of Airlangga University. The Simmental bulls are approximately five years old, weighing 400 to 900 kg. Kacang goats were also chosen as they were relatively healthy, weighing between 25 and 35 kg, and showed high libido.
Methods of Collecting Goat Sperm
Goat semen is extracted by the artificial vagina method twice a week. The anestrous doe was used as a teaser. The ejaculate was transferred to the farm laboratory within two to three minutes after ejaculation. The semen was centrifuged to remove the seminal plasma and stored at 30degC. The quality of the goat sperm was assessed by conventional methods. TFGY formulation based on Foote’s formula for bull semen was added to the semen. Fructose, egg yolk, and antibiotics were added to the formula.
There is no standard protocol for cryopreserving goat semen, but there are several methods of thawing goat semen. The temperature at which the semen is stored affects viability, pH and sperm concentration. There is no standardized protocol to determine the appropriate temperature for thawing the semen, but different methods seem to yield different results. To make a decision on which method to use, compare the freezing protocols.
Cervical insemination is a surgical procedure in which sperm is deposited in the cervix through the vagina. Laparoscopic insemination involves the use of a laparoscope and manipulating probe to collect sperm directly in the ovary. Although both methods have similar conception rates, they are far more invasive. This procedure is costly and may lead to scarring.
Different breeding methods and breeding seasons of goats influence the viability of their sperm. Alpine semen is more viable than that of Saanen bucks. However, there is a link between the type of goat and the method of collection. While the results of the latter are not conclusive, this study suggests that if you choose a specific breed and collect semen during the breeding season, the quality of the sperm is increased.
Collect the semen.
To collect the semen, use a pipette to draw up and then deposit the goat’s ejaculate into a sterile collection tube. The pipette should be an artificial vagina made of soft plastic, which can be found at livestock breeding supply companies. This will serve to stimulate the male into producing an ejaculate. To make sure that the semen is protected and that you can use it later for insemination, place it in a semen extender immediately after collecting it.
Use a straw to insert the semen directly into the female’s cervix while she is ovulating (see below). You may have to work quickly to get this done before she is no longer receptive to being mounted by other goats due to her previous mating or mounting activity. Semen can be stored for about 48 hours at room temperature before it begins losing viability; if the female does not become pregnant within this time frame, then refrigerate any remaining sperm until you are ready for another attempt at insemination (within three days).
Keep semen cold at all times to maintain fertility.
Maintain the freshness of your collected goat semen by keeping it chilled at all times. If you have a long commute home from milking, pack the semen in an insulated lunchbox and put it on ice. Also consider buying a very small cooler, so that the semen can be stored in a more sheltered environment.
There are several types of equipment used to collect goat sperm. The best choice depends on the animal’s breed and the quality of the sperm. For example, a sine-wave electroejaculator can collect a much higher quantity of sperm than a pulse-wave instrument. Nevertheless, other conditions may influence the results. It’s best to process the sperm as soon as possible.
The pH of ruminant semen is slightly acidic, but it can also deviate a bit from the reference range. A deviation from the ideal pH value in semen can have detrimental effects on its viability. Few studies have investigated the factors that influence the pH levels of raw goat sperm. Different studies have analyzed the effect of temperature on a variety of mammal species, but systematic investigations of goat semen are lacking.
Using a probe, an electro-ejaculator works to collect semen from hard-to-stimulate animals. It works by causing an electrical shock in the penis, which brings on ejaculation. Once the sperm have been collected, they are processed with an extender. This mixture is made of nutrient-rich milk or egg yolk, antibiotics, and glycerol.
To clean the pipette and speculum, quaze swap the ewes before you inseminate them. A quaze can also be used to identify ewes in heat. After the ewes have been caught in the evening, the ram is placed with them in the morning. A small amount of semen is enough for AI. Approximately 50 – 100ml of semen is needed for insemination. The average amount of semen produced in an artificial breeding centre is around 15 rams.
Once you have collected the goat semen, you should use it immediately for artificial insemination. If your goat has a seasonal breeding cycle, store the semen at 5°C for up to 10 days. If your goat will be bred again during subsequent seasons, store the semen at -196°C in liquid nitrogen tanks. Semen stored this way can survive for several weeks.
To study the storage of goat sperm, scientists have compared the motility of spermatozoa at four and five degrees Celsius. Four West African dwarf bucks aged 10 to 12 months were ejaculated on a weekly basis. The samples were then stored in a water bath at 30 degrees Celsius and were tested using conventional methods. Among the diluents used for storing goat sperm are TFGY (Tris-hydorxymethyl amino methane), fructose, egg yolk, and antibiotics.
The temperature at which the testicles are stored and how long they are stored postmortem will affect the quality of the sperm. It is best to keep goat testicle storage at 5 degrees Celsius for 48 hours after the animal has died. If the time interval between the death of the animal and the collection of sperm is short, it can still be stored properly. The temperature at which the goat testicles are stored affects the quality of sperm.
The trehalose solution used in preserving goat sperm showed an improvement in the motility parameters post-freeze. The highest recovery rates were observed for the trehalose solution, at a concentration of 100 percent. The trehalose solution was also found to be the best choice for storing goat sperm. The final result was high motility and progressive recovery rate. But a lot of research is needed to determine whether the freeze-thawing method is the best option for goat sperm.
The addition of trehalose to the TCG solution improves freezability and membrane fluidity. The study also compared the viability of goat spermatozoa preserved in TCG and trehalose solutions. A high concentration of trehalose preserved spermatozoa in vitro significantly more than the other two. It also improved the motility of the goat spermatozoa significantly.
Evaluation of sperm quality
The first step in the evaluation of goat sperm quality is to collect the semen. This was done by an artificial vagina and the ejaculate was transferred to the farm laboratory in about two minutes. The semen was centrifuged to remove the seminal plasma and kept at 30degC. After that, conventional techniques were used to measure the sperm quality. The goat sperm were classified into two groups: high quality and low quality. The goat sperm quality was classified into two groups based on the results of both agglutination parameters.
The acrosome status of goat sperm72 was evaluated by flow cytometry and FITC-PSA staining. Goat seminal plasma was diluted in TALP buffer, containing 95.0 mM NaC, 3.0 mg/ml bovine serum albumin, and 30.0 mg/ml gentamycin sulfate. The results are presented in Supplementary Table S1.
This study revealed that glucose and fructose decrease the concentration of sperm proteins and negatively affect motility. These results are consistent with those of previous studies in goats. However, a study conducted in cattle does not reveal similar results. The results suggest that goat seminal plasma contains more carbohydrates than bull seminal plasma. These results suggest that the sugars contained in goat seminal plasma are derived from milk rather than sperm.
Another method of evaluating sperm quality is the hypo-osmotic swelling test. This technique tests the integrity of the sperm plasma membrane. Twenty uL of semen was incubated in a solution of 9.4 g/L sodium citrate and 100 mOsm/kg for 60 min. A ten-uL slide was then mounted in a microscope. In this way, two hundred sperm were examined in each sample. Sperm with coiling tails were counted under a 400 x magnification.
Goat semen collection is not a DIY project. Instead, you should hire a trained professional to handle it for you. This ensures that it will be done correctly and efficiently, as well as with minimal stress on the animal.
The professional will also have access to proper equipment, such as an artificial vagina, which keeps the temperature of the collected sperm at a steady 37 degrees celsius (98.6 degrees fahrenheit). If they don’t already have a place to store their equipment at farm level, they can bring coolers filled with ice packs with them when they come over to your farm. These measures ensure that your goat sperm stays viable until use or storage in a freezer (which does not affect its viability).
You should also note that goats are seasonal breeders so timing is very important for both female and male goats’ reproductive cycles. Lastly, it is important to know that goat sperm can be collected several times in a day so if you keep enough in reserve from each collection then you may run into fewer problems if there is any issue with one of those collections!