The German Black Pied Dairy, German Schwarzbuntes Milchrind (SMR), was a historical breed of dairy cows, developed through combination breeding during the German Democratic Republic. Developed in Eastern Germany in the 1950s and 1960s from local German Black Pied Lowland cattle, this breed was mainly geared toward milk production.
A German Black Pied Cattle is a breed of dairy cattle made of cattle from the North Sea coastal areas of northern Germany and the Netherlands. Until the 18th-century cows of different colors were bred in these areas. In the last century, black pied cattle have predominated, although uni-coloured red cattle and red pied cattle still exist.
This breed was crossed with Jersey Cattle and Holstein Friesian Cattle and resulted in the Black Pied Dairy Cattle race. The original breeding type was preserved in East Germany as a genetic reserve. A number of breeders in the West of Germany and the Netherlands were able to conserve the original type. Therefore, the first breeding company in the East Frisia (Germany) was founded in 1878. In the future, the breed took over most of eastern and central Germany as the breeding areas of East Frisia and East Prussia. Later, they extended over the entire eastern and central German mainland. Since 1958, the breed has been crossed with the Holstein Friesian Cattle breed for the first time in West Germany. Here on out, the breed has been dominant since the 1960s.
Georg Schönmuth recommended that in 1963 Jersey bulls from Denmark be crossbred with German Black Pied cows from which the descendants would be bred with Honduran Holsteins. The goal of this three-breed cross was to create a breed of cattle with high milk production, high milk fat content, and sufficient beef production. This breed continued to be used until 1990 when German Black Pied Dairy cattle were replaced by German Holstein cattle.
In northern Germany and the Netherlands, Black Pied cattle have long been bred. Until the 18th century, cattle of different colors were bred in this region. A few centuries ago, black pied cattle were dominant, but today there are still uni-coloured red and red pied cattle. The first breeding company was founded in East Frisia (Germany) in 1878. The greatest breeding areas of the breed were East Frisia and East Prussia (now Russia, Lithuania, and Poland). Later the breed extended to the entire northern and central German area. The breed has been crossed with and established as a cross with the Holstein Friesian cattle in West Germany since 1958. Since the 1960s these cross-breed animals have been dominant, leading to the development of the German black-and-white cattle breed.
There was a problem with animal feed and butter in those times, so smaller bodies with a higher milk fat content were a priority. We used Danish Jersey and Holstein (USA) in upgrading with approximately 25% original German Black Pied Lowland, 25% Danish Jersey and 50% Holstein.
The original breeding type was conserved in East Germany as a genetic reserve through breeding with Jersey cattle and Holstein Friesian cattle. Other breeders also managed to conserve the original breeding type in West Germany and in the Netherlands. The German Black Pied bull is smaller and has a lower milk volume, but they are also more fertile and live longer. Comparisons were made between the rate of muscle growth and energy utilization of Fleckvieh bulls and that of German Black Pied bulls. Fleckvieh bulls have been found to have faster growth rates, the carcasses have a lower proportion of fat, especially in the abdominal region, and the animals could be slaughtered earlier when fed with the same diet.
Despite their great success as a breed, after German reunification, the German Black Pied Dairy quickly integrated itself into the German Holstein population. German Black Pied Cattles are smaller and have a smaller milk volume than Holstein Friesian Cattles, but they live longer and are more fertile.