Bacteria previously identified as being Pasteurella species have been reclassified; the main species causing disease in sheep are now called Mannheimia haemolytica, and Bibersteinia trehalosi M. haemolytica commonly causes either septicaemia in young lambs or pneumonia in all ages of sheep. B. trehalosi is most commonly associated with septicaemia in older lambs.
Most of the vaccines marketed in the UK for the control of pneumonic and/or systemic pasteurellosis are in combination with vaccines for clostridial diseases. The primary vaccination course is two doses of vaccine separated by a four- to six-week interval. A booster dose should be administered at intervals of not more than 12 months.
- Heptavac P Plus is a multivalent clostridial vaccine for sheep that can also aid in the control of pneumonic and systemic pasteurellosis
- Ovipast Plus is a vaccine for the active immunisation of sheep as an aid in the control of pasteurellosis caused by M. haemolytica and B. trehalosi
- Ovivac P Plus is a multivalent clostridial vaccine for sheep that can also aid in the control of pneumonic and systemic pasteurellosis
Pasteurellosis is a devastating condition affecting sheep of all ages. It is one of the most common causes of mortality in all ages of sheep. It is most often associated with stress. The disease is of considerable economic significance and is responsible for a high mortality rate and substantial treatment costs. Many factors including stress and management play a role in the development of disease. The most important infectious agents involved are bacteria including Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida.
Features of Pasteurella Vaccine Sheep
Pasteurellosis, also known as “enzootic pneumonia”, remains one of the most common causes of mortality in sheep of all ages. Despite its impact, the disease is still not wholly understood. The bacteria responsible have been reclassified recently as Mannhemia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Both are normal inhabitants of the nose and throat of healthy sheep.
Treatment and Control:
Whenever possible, treatment should be based on bacterial culture and sensitivity, especially in herd or flock outbreaks, when valuable animals are involved, or in acute or chronic cases when initial therapeutic attempts have failed. Commonly recommended antibiotics include oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg/day of non-long-acting product, or 20 mg/kg once of the long-acting product), florfenicol (20 mg/kg, every 48 hr), and tylosin (10–20 mg/kg, once to twice daily). Therapy should continue for at least 24–48 hr after body temperature has returned to normal. Duration of treatment usually is 4–5 days. Tilmicosin and other macrolide antibiotics can also be used but are considerably more expensive than oxytetracycline. Acute cases may also benefit from the use of NSAIDs (eg, flunixin meglumine or ketoprofen) in conjunction with antibiotic therapy for control of endotoxemia and inflammation.
Inadequate ventilation, crowding, commingling of animals from various farms (feedlot or sale barn situations), poor nutrition, failure of passive transfer of antibodies, transportation, and other stresses have all been associated with pneumonia outbreaks. Control and prevention lies with correction of the predisposing factors whenever practical. Prevention of pasteurellosis is best attempted using vaccines incorporating iron-regulated proteins; because these proteins are antigenically similar, they confer cross-protection against other serotypes. Breeding ewes require a primary course of two injections 4–6 wk apart followed by an annual booster 4–6 wk before lambing. However, this vaccination regimen provides only passive immunity to the lambs for up to 5 wk. Lambs can be protected by two doses of vaccine administered from 10 days of age, because colostral antibody does not interfere with development of active immunity.
Prices of Pasteurella Vaccine Sheep
$26.00 – $72.98