Pasteurella and Mannheimia organisms are β-hemolytic, gram-negative, aerobic, nonmotile, nonsporeforming coccobacilli in the family Pasteurellaceae. This family tends to inhabit the mucosal surfaces of the GI, respiratory, and genital tract of mammals. Many are known as opportunistic secondary invaders. Some species show preferences for specific surfaces and hosts. Updating of phylogenetic data has resulted in renaming based on gene sequence analysis. As a result, P haemolytica biotypes A and T were reclassified as M haemolytica (biotype A) and P trehalosi (biotype T). More recently, P trehalosi has been reclassified as Bibersteinia trehalosi. Each isolate of M haemolytica and B trehalosi is designated with a biotype and serotype.
M haemolytica A2 is the most common strain isolated from sheep and goat respiratory pasteurellosis, although A6, A13, and Ant have been reported in sheep and Ant in goats. M haemolytica A2 is routinely reported from cases of mastitis in sheep. B trehalosi T3, T4, T10, and T15 have been most often associated with the systemic or septicemic form of pasteurellosis affecting lambs. These serotypes have been regrouped to B trehalosi biotype 2, and a new biotype 4 has been added. B trehalosi is often isolated from the lungs of sheep, goats, and cattle, but pathogenicity is variable and may be incidental. P multocida has also been reported as a cause of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep and goats and has been isolated in herd outbreaks of septic arthritis. M haemolytica is the most commonly isolated bacteria in clinical cases, followed closely by B trehalosi, with P multocida seen less frequently.
Pasteurellosis is often used to describe the disease ‘pneumonia’ or ‘bontlong’ and occurs more commonly in late autumn and early winter. Losses are usually 2-8% but 10-50% can show signs of the disease.
Pneumonia is a disease of complex aetiology, involving interactions between a range of micro-organisms and the immunological and physiological responses of the host. Pasteurella (Manneheimia) haemolytica is considered to be the main bacteria.
Manneheimia haemolytica is divided into 2 biotypes ( A and T) and 16 serotypes.
Biotype A: 1,2,5,6,7,8,9,,11,12,13,14,16
Biotype T: 3,4,10,15.
The dominant serotypes with pneumonia have been 6,2,1 (in that order)
Biotype T is has also now been called Pasteurella Trehalosi and further renamed Bibersteinia trehalosi. More research has been conducted in sheep where Pasteurella ( Bibersteinia) multocida has 5 types A,B,D,E (type C was not a separate type so was removed). Sheep are affected by type A or D.
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, Mycoplasma arganini and the viruses Parainfluenza virus type 3, Respiratory syncytial virus, Ovine adenovirus type 6 have also been implicated in sheep.
In goats Chlamydia psittaci ‘Enzootic Abortion’ organisms have also been implicated as a predisposing cause.
In Angora goats less is known about the agents involved. In cases where culture and |ID have been conducted when the SAMGA vet has investigated deaths theses have all been Manneheimia haemolytica (not typed).
Features of Pasteurella Vaccine For Sheep And Goats
Early identification of respiratory disease and introduction of effective antibiotic therapy is necessary. Death losses are high in severely affected animals. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of M haemolytica, B trehalosi, and P multicoda have shown resistance to penicillins (all three organisms), sulfadimethoxine (P multocida), and tetracyclines (B trehalosi). Ampicillin, ceftiofur, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tulathromycin would be expected to have good efficacy, although extra-label use of fluoroquinolones is prohibited in the USA.
Treatment is frequently unrewarding unless begun very early in the disease process because of rapid progression of lung damage and endotoxin release. Parenteral fluids and anti-inflammatory agents are important adjuncts to antibiotic therapy. Although septicemic pasteurellosis has favorable antimicrobial susceptibility, response to therapy is often disappointing. Administering prophylactic antibiotics to at-risk lambs may be beneficial.
Prices of Pasteurella Vaccine For Sheep And Goats
$23.66 – $127.29