Enterotoxemia, or overeating disease, is a major cause of death of kids and lambs from shortly after birth through the entire feeding period. It is caused by a bacterium called Clostridium perfringens. It is characterized by acute indigestion, convulsions and other nervous system signs such as colic and sudden death. It commonly affects single kids and lambs, nursing dams that are heavy milkers, and feeder animals that are on high energy diets. With proper feeding, management, and immunization, the disease can be controlled. Tetanus is a common, fatal disease in sheep and goats caused by a bacterium known as Clostridium tetani. Common symptoms are muscle stiffness and spasms, bloat, panic, uncoordinated walking, and/or the inability to eat and drink. It is sometimes referred to as lockjaw. Death is inevitable, usually about three or four days after symptoms appear.
Clostridial diseases are often fatal and strike ruminant livestock suddenly, often causing a mysterious death without any clinical signs. The clostridia bacteria are widespread in the environment. They are normally found in the soil and manure. They are also present in the digestive tract and tissues of healthy animals. For these reasons, vaccination is the best way to prevent disease outbreaks. CDT vaccination helps to protect healthy sheep and goats against Clostridium perfringens type C and D (overeating disease) and Clostridium tetani (tetanus).
Enterotoxemia is a frequently severe disease of sheep and goats of all ages. It is caused by two strains of bacteria called Clostridium perfringens – the strains are termed types C and D. These bacteria are normally found in low numbers in the gastrointestinal tract of all sheep and goats. If that is so, when and why do they cause disease?
These organisms are normally “laying low” in the small and large intestine – that is, they are present in relatively low numbers and appear to be in a relatively quiescent state in the normal, healthy animal. What appears to trigger them to cause disease is a change in the diet of the animal. Most commonly, the change that triggers disease is an increase in the amount of grain, protein supplement, milk or milk replacer (for lambs and kids), and/or grass that the sheep or goat is ingesting. Collectively, these feeds are rich in starch, sugar, and/or protein. When unusually high levels of these nutrients reach the intestine, Clostridium perfringens undergoes explosive growth, increasing its numbers rapidly within the intestine. As the organism grows in number, it releases very potent toxins (bacterial poisons) that harm the animal. These toxins can cause damage to the intestine as well as numerous other organs. This can result in fatalities, particularly in the non-vaccinated animal or in the newborn lamb or kid whose dam has not been vaccinated.
Features of Overeating Vaccine For Sheep
- Entertoxemia is a frequently severe disease of sheep and goats of all ages.
- Causative bacteria are present in relatively low numbers and appear to be in a relatively quiescent state in the normal, healthy animal.
- Treatment may not be successful in severe cases.
- Prevention of enterotoxemia is far more likely to be successful than trying to treat the disease.
Vaccination is the cornerstone to prevention of this disease. For sheep and goats, there are multiple vaccines available that induce immunity to the toxins generated by Clostridium perfringens types C and D. Because tetanus is also an important disease to prevent in sheep and goats, many veterinarians recommend that sheep and goats be vaccinated with a vaccine that also induces protection against tetanus. These vaccines are often termed “three-way” vaccines because they induce protection against the three bacteria involved: Clostridium perfringens type C (enterotoxemia), type D (enterotoxemia) and Clostridium tetani (the bacterium that causes tetanus).
Adult sheep and goats: When initiating vaccination for a given sheep or goat, all enterotoxemia/tetanus vaccines require two doses to induce effective immunity. These doses are usually administered 10 to14 days apart. Once each adult sheep or goat has received these two doses, repeat vaccination should occur at least once per year. Many veterinarians recommend that ewes and does be vaccinated roughly one to two months ahead of the anticipated birthing date, in order to maximize the amount of antibody present in the colostrum (first milk) – this helps to protect the neonate against enterotoxemia. If immunization of pregnant animals during that time frame is not feasible for you, then vaccinating the ewes and does at other times of the year appears to be effective.
Prices of Overeating Vaccine For Sheep
$14.34 – $59.58