Chickens are susceptible to many infectious diseases. One of the most important of these is the viral disease known as Newcastle disease, which causes devastating losses in both commercial and village chickens. Reducing losses of large numbers of village chickens to virulent Newcastle disease is an essential first step to improving their productivity. Newcastle disease can be controlled by the use of vaccines. There are many Newcastle disease vaccines suitable for use in commercial chickens. These are available on the international market. The I-2 Newcastle disease vaccine has been developed for local or regional production and use in controlling Newcastle disease in village chickens.
Many Newcastle disease vaccines deteriorate after storage for one or two hours at room temperature. This makes them unsuitable for use in villages where the vaccine may need to be transported for hours or in some cases days at ambient temperature. The I-2 Newcastle disease vaccine is more robust and is known as a thermostable vaccine. Thermostable vaccines still require long-term storage in the refrigerator. However during transportation of the vaccine to the field, the vaccine will not deteriorate as quickly as the traditional vaccines. Evaporative cooling provided by wrapping the vaccine in a damp cloth will be adequate for maintaining the viability of the vaccine during transportation to remote villages. However if it is stored in direct sunlight or allowed to reach high temperatures (above 37°C) for more than a few hours it too will deteriorate and be unsuitable for use as a vaccine.
Features of Newcastle Vaccine For Chickens
Live vaccines are very important for the control and prevention of Newcastle disease, to provide local protection and prime for the inactivated vaccine. When choosing the live vaccine strain, we face a dilemma, reaction versus protection. Normally the best protection comes with undesirable post-vaccine reactions, whilst the vaccines with a reduced post-vaccine reaction provide more limited protection. To analyse the protection of the vaccine and the reaction, it is important to understand a few points:
The method of vaccination: Ideally, the best method of vaccination for Newcastle vaccines are spray or eye drop. It is very important to check the size of the droplets, as fine drops can cause reactions. The ideal droplet size is between 160 – 180 μ
The performance of the vaccination: Regardless of the method of vaccination chosen, it is important to carry it out correctly. In the case of poor performance of the vaccination, it is possible for a “rolling effect” to occur: if the vaccination does not reach all the birds at the same time, some of the birds will have contact with the vaccine virus later on, causing a reaction.
Maternal antibodies: In the case of Newcastle vaccination, maternal antibodies are important in order to minimise any vaccine reaction and to give the birds humoral protection until the inactivated vaccine takes effect.
Choice of strain: As mentioned before, the less reactive strains will confer limited protection and strains that are more reactive will provide better protection. The process of choosing will have to take account of the pressure of infection in the region. Normally the LaSota strain is one of the most popular, as it provides good protection.
The vaccine titre: The titre will influence control of the disease and the shedding of the virus, 10 4.0 being the minimum titre for control of clinical signs (Cornax et al., 2012), however control of clinical signs is not enough, it is important to reduce the shedding of the virus. Hipraviar®Clon and Hipraviar®Clon/H120 have a minimum titre of 10 6,5
The vaccine contains the LaSota strain of Newcastle disease virus. The virus has been propagated in fertile eggs from specific pathogen free flocks. The immunizing capability of the vaccine has been proven by the master seed immunogenicity test. The vaccine offers proven immunity with mild reactions.
Contains streptomycin and penicillin as bacteriostatic agents.
Contains fungizone as a fungistatic agent.
Notice: The vaccine has undergone rigid potency, safety, and purity tests and meets Merial Select, Inc., and USDA requirements.
The vaccine is recommended for administration to healthy chickens as an aid in the prevention of Newcastle disease.
The vaccine is recommended for the vaccination of healthy chickens 14 days of age or older by drinking water administration or by aerosol spray. Spray vaccination is recommended for revaccination only. Revaccination is recommended at four weeks and 16 weeks of age.
Newcastle Disease Vaccine (LaSota Strain) Dosage And Administration
Directions for Drinking Water Vaccination:
1. Do not open and mix the vaccine until ready to vaccinate.
2. Remove all medication, sanitizers and disinfectants from the drinking water 72 hours prior to vaccination.
3. Provide sufficient waterers so that all of the birds can drink at one time. Clean and rinse the waterers thoroughly.
4. Withhold all water from the birds for two (2) to four (4) hours prior to vaccination to stimulate thirst.
5. Add nonfat dry milk to the water at the rate of one (1) ounce per gallon before mixing the vaccine.
6. Remove the aluminum seal and rubber stopper from a vaccine vial.
7. Fill the vaccine vial two-thirds (2/3) full with clean, cool water and mix gently.
8. Mix the dissolved vaccine with water as shown below:
Age of birds
Water per 1,000 doses vaccine
2.5 gallons (9.9 L)
5 gallons (18.9 L)
8 weeks or older
10 gallons (37.9 L)
9. Distribute the vaccine solution among the waterers. Avoid direct sunlight.
10. Do not provide any other drinking water until all of the vaccine mixture has been consumed.