Leptospirosis is one of the most important and costly contributors to reproductive losses in the beef and dairy industries. Regional presence of leptospirosis in dairy herds ranged from 36% of herds in the Midwest to 91% in California, with an overall average of 59%.1 A 6 state study conducted with a cross section of environmental and management conditions representative of the U.S. beef cattle industry found overall prevalence of Lepto hardjo-bovis in cattle herds to be 42 percent.2 1 Bolin CA., Bovine leptospirosis prevalent in U.S. dairy herds. Bovine Veterinarian. 2003; February. pgs. 14-152 Wikse SE, Rogers GM, et al. Herd prevalence and risk factors of Leptospira infection in beef cow/calf operations in the United States: Leptospira borgpetersenii Serovar Hardjo.
Leptospirosis is a worldwide bacterial disease that occurs in many species of mammals, including humans. The spiral-shaped bacteria (spirochetes) are shed in the urine and other discharges/secretions from infected or carrier animals, and can survive in moist soil or surface water for long periods at mild temperatures. If a sick, or carrier animal, urinates on pasture or hay, or in a pond or stream, susceptible animals may pick up spirochetes when eating/drinking contaminated feed or water, or when walking through contaminated water or having it splash into the eyes, nose or mouth. Daniel Grooms, Michigan State University, says there is always risk for exposure for beef cattle since the disease is carried by wildlife and rodents. “Studies have shown that about 50 percent of beef herds in the U.S. are infected, with at least one animal in the herd carrying Leptospirosis hardjo, the serovar that is host-adapted to cattle. We see more incidence of lepto (all types) in warm, moist climate
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, caused by bacteria of genus Leptospira. Depending on location different serogroups are often more prevalent. Some examples of different serovars include hardjo, pomona, canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae, and grippotyphosa. Cattle are the maintentance hosts for hardjo, but as this is specialised to survive within cattle, the infection is less severe. Animals infected with other strains (such as pomona) suffer more severe illness. Maintenance hosts carry the bacteria and expose other susceptible animals. Maintenance hosts can be cattle, pigs, dogs, rodents or horses. An animal may be infected by serovars maintained by its own species (maintenance host infection or host-adapted infection) or serovars maintained by other species (incidental infection or nonhost-adapted infection).
Features of Leptospirosis Vaccine Cattle
Lepto 3-Way® is an inactivated leptospirosis vaccine containing the serovars Hardjo, Copenhageni and Pomona – the serovars most commonly identified with disease in livestock and humans in New Zealand. Lepto 3-Way® stimulates the immune system of calves and adult cattle to produce antibodies against these serovars, stopping their shedding in urine, and reducing the risk of leptospirosis infections in humans.
- No added adjuvant, meaning reduced injection site reactions, ease of syringeability and minimal settling in packs & injectors
- Able to be used for 30 days after the pack is opened
- Can be used in at-risk calves from 4 weeks of age
Leptospirosis can be controlled by eliminating swampy areas from the premises, and restricting the access of cattle to stagnant water and runoff from animal pens. Wildlife can be vectors for Leptospira. Therefore, control of rodents and pests will help minimize disease transmission. Because leptospirosis is widespread in the U. S. cattle population, all cattle used for breeding purposes should be vaccinated for the most common Leptospira serovars, including serovar Hardjo bovis. There is little or no cross-protection among Leptospira serovars. Therefore, it is important to vaccinate all susceptible cattle with Spirovac® L5 or Spirovac VL5 prior to breeding to help preempt reproductive loss associated with leptospirosis, including Leptospira borgpetersenii. Vaccination with Bovi-Shield GOLD FP® 5 L5 HB or Bovi-Shield GOLD FP® 5 VL5 HB will also help protect cattle against the most common Leptospira serovars, including serovar Hardjo bovis, plus bovine respiratory disease (BRD).
- Cattle should be given 2 ml in the upper neck by subcutaneous injection.
- A further dose of 2 ml should be given four to six weeks later.
Prices of Leptospirosis Vaccine Cattle
$24.39 – $36.99