hickens are susceptible to many infectious diseases. One of the most important of these is the viral disease known as Newcastle disease, which causes devastating losses in both commercial and village chickens. Reducing losses of large numbers of village chickens to virulent Newcastle disease is an essential first step to improving their productivity. Newcastle disease can be controlled by the use of vaccines. There are many Newcastle disease vaccines suitable for use in commercial chickens. These are available on the international market. The I-2 Newcastle disease vaccine has been developed for local or regional production and use in controlling Newcastle disease in village chickens.
Many Newcastle disease vaccines deteriorate after storage for one or two hours at room temperature. This makes them unsuitable for use in villages where the vaccine may need to be transported for hours or in some cases days at ambient temperature. The I-2 Newcastle disease vaccine is more robust and is known as a thermostable vaccine. Thermostable vaccines still require long-term storage in the refrigerator. However during transportation of the vaccine to the field, the vaccine will not deteriorate as quickly as the traditional vaccines. Evaporative cooling provided by wrapping the vaccine in a damp cloth will be adequate for maintaining the viability of the vaccine during transportation to remote villages. However if it is stored in direct sunlight or allowed to reach high temperatures (above 37°C) for more than a few hours it too will deteriorate and be unsuitable for use as a vaccine.
Dosage And Administration
Directions for Drinking Water Vaccination:
1. Do not open and mix the vaccine until ready to vaccinate.
2. Remove all medication, sanitizers and disinfectants from the drinking water 72 hours prior to vaccination.
3. Provide sufficient waterers so that all of the birds can drink at one time. Clean and rinse the waterers thoroughly.
4. Withhold all water from the birds for two (2) to four (4) hours prior to vaccination to stimulate thirst.
5. Add nonfat dry milk to the water at the rate of one (1) ounce per gallon before mixing the vaccine.
6. Remove the aluminum seal and rubber stopper from a vaccine vial.
7. Fill the vaccine vial two-thirds (2/3) full with clean, cool water and mix gently.
8. Mix the dissolved vaccine with water as shown below:
Age of birds
Water per 1,000 doses vaccine
2.5 gallons (9.9 L)
5 gallons (18.9 L)
8 weeks or older
10 gallons (37.9 L)
9. Distribute the vaccine solution among the waterers. Avoid direct sunlight.
10. Do not provide any other drinking water until all of the vaccine mixture has been consumed.
If possible, vaccinate all susceptible birds on the premises at the same time.
For 10 to 14 days after vaccinating, avoid carrying vaccine particles on shoes, clothing, etc., into areas where there are unvaccinated birds.