Kangayam cattle, is a dual purpose breed and used more for carting. The present study was undertaken to find out the production performance of Kangayam cattle in Karur District. From the district 60 Kangayam cattle owners were identified randomly. The milk yield of the selected animals was recorded twice daily. As the calf and the farmer shared the milk the milk yield data were considered as daily partial milk yield. In addition milk samples were collected both morning and evening for estimation of milk constituents. The study reflected that the maximum lactation yield recorded among 60 animals was 1,455 litres and minimum of 342 litres. The milk yield in the first month (3.81litres) got increased to 4.11 litres in the second month. Almost the production in first 6 months is around 3.9 litres. The average fat per cent in Kangayam milk was found 3.9±0.07 and the SNF was 8.2±0.02 in the entire lactation period.
Live stock plays a major role with rural economy of the District. More than 60% of the rural people depend upon Animal husbandry activities such as Dairy, Poultry, Goat rearing, Rabbit farm etc., for their daily income and livestock rearing is the way of life in rural areas. Hence, Animal husbandry forms the backbone of rural economy. In Tiruppur district, there are 45 number of veterinary dispensaries are available to protect the animal health care. Kangayam is one of the draught breeds of Tamilnadu reputed for its superior draught power, adaptation to poor nutrition and drought conditions and longevity. The breed derives the name from its home tract, viz. Kangayam taluk in Tiruppur district. The credit for evolving this breed goes to the then Pattagar of Palayakottai Mr.N.Nallathambi Sarkarai Manradiar and his family (Gunn, 1909; Littlewood, 1936; Pattabhiraman, 1958). The Government of Tamil Nadu (madras) also have taken steps to improve and popularize the breed since 1920s through various research and developmental programmes.
Earlier, the Kangayam bullocks were used for drawing water from deep wells, ploughing and transport. After the electrification of wells for irrigation the utility of Kangayam bullocks has declined considerably. Mechanisation of the other agricultural operations is yet another reason for the reduced demand for draught power. Now the bullocks are primarily used for transport of agricultural produce and in some areas of the breeding tract for transport of sand to the constructions sites.The Kangayam bulls was used in Kerala as an improver breed of the non-descript cadre. It was exported to Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Brazil, the breed was specifically used to improve the characteristics and carcass quality of Nellore cattle, a well known beef cattle in that country. Further, a few registered Kangayam herds are maintained for multiplication and future use.
During the period between 1993-1997 a study was conducted by the Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Science University, Chennai with financial assistance from the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi to collect information on the present habitat, distribution, performance and management practices and utility of Kangayam cattle. Most of the data presented is from the survey, though information’s from other sources have also been incorporated.
The Kangayam is a medium-sized animal. Calves are generally red in colour at birth, with black markings over the coronets and fetlocks and sometimes on the knees. Inside the thighs and forelegs the colour is white. The red colour begins to change to grey at two to three months of age. Total grey colour is generally attained around six months. In young males, darkening of the hump, fore and hindquarters of the body occurs between 18 and 24 months. Heifers are grey or white and grey in colour. The colour of the bull is grey with dark grey to black markings on the head, neck, hump. shoulders and quarters. After castration, the dark grey colour in different parts of the body of the bull changes to grey colour, Cows are grey or white an grey with black markings in fetlocks.
Forehead is broad and level with a shallow groove at the centre. Face is short and straight and ears are short and horizontal. Eyes are prominent, elliptical in shape with black eye lashes. Muzzle and horns are black in colour. In adults, the horns are longer, cruving outwards and backwards, then inwards and almost complete a circle or ellipse at the point where they approach the tips. The horn circumference is more throughout the length in bulls and bullocks than in cows.
The other notable characteristics of Kangayam are short and thick neck, deep and wide chest and well-developed hump. The barrel is compact, well-ribbed, and attached to medium stout legs. Loins are broad and hips wide apart with well developed wide thighs. A well tucked up sheath, thin short dewlaps, long tail and hard, small, black hooves are also characteristics of the breed. In cows the udder is not well developed and teats are fairly small and slender. The skin is black in colour and soft; the hairs are short, glossy and straight.
Kangayam Cow Milk Price