HERBICIDES USED ON PLANTS; TYPES AND HOW THEY WORK.

weeds

Herbicides are chemicals used to kill weeds (unwanted plants) that tend to compete with the grown crops. Herbicides can be selective or non-selective. Each of these groups can be sub-divided into three namely;
  • Contact
  • Systemic
  • Residual

SELECTIVE HERBICIDES

These are weed killers which by their chemical composition are capable of acting bio-chemically on either broad-leaved weeds or grasses. They are used predominately in monocropping situations.
However, when these herbicides are used in high concentration, they tend to have phytoxic effect on cultivated crops. Selective herbicides that kill grasses only are Alachlor, Pendimenthalin etc. also those that kill broad leaves weeds only are Atrazine, Imasaquine etc.

Examples of selective commercial herbicide are:

 

  • Basamaize for maize.
  • Ronster for rice.
  • Galex for cowpea, soyabeans, groundnut.
  • Basegram for rice and maize.
  • Cotoran for cassava.
  • Primextra for maize, cassava and yam. 
  • Diuron for yam and cassava.

NON-SELECTIVE HERBICIDES

These are otherwise known as total weed killers. They are used for weed control in any weed combination in the field, they will kill any kind of vegetation. Example is Glyphosate (Round-up).

 

CLASSIFICATION OF HERBICIDES BY MODE OF ACTION

  • CONTACT HERBICIDES: These are types of herbicides kill any vegetation or weeds immediately after application. They stop all biological activities. E.g paraquat, gramoxone, basta etc.
  • SYSTEMIC HERBICIDES: These are slow action type whose effects are not noticed until few days or week after application. Their effect is a thorough but gradual killing of most stubborn and perennial weeds. They have the ability to move around the transportation and translocation systems to achieve a total kill e.g Glyphosate.
  • RESIDUAL HERBICIDES: These are soil acting weed killers whose effects on weed control are primarily as photosynthetic inhibitors. They can have both pre and post emergence activity; they are applied to the soil after cultivation and effectively control germinating weed seeds. Examples are zimazine, Diuron etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF HERBICIDES BASED ON TIME OF USAGE

  • PRE-PLANTING HERBICIDES: This can be a foliar; selective or non-selective herbicide, applied before the crop is planted. Examples are Glyphosate , Paraquat.
  • PRE-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES: These are applied in the soil before the emergence of weeds, immediately after cultivation e.g Galex  + Metolachar used for cowpea, Cotoran used for cassava etc. You can buy any of these Pre-Emergence Herbicides For Weeds Control
  • POST EMERGENCE HERBICIDES: These are applied after the emergence of weeds and can have both contact and systemic actions, but usually selective so as not to have phytoxicity effect on cultivated crop. Examples are Laddox in maize, Paraquat, Propanil, Glyphosate.  

Read also: List Of Herbicides Used For Weed Control On Maize Farm

WOULD YOU LOVE TO RECEIVE REGULAR POSTS FROM THIS BLOG?

THEN, SUBSCRIBE BY ADDING YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS IN THE SUBSCRIPTION PANE BELOW

Sharing is caring!

126 Comments

  1. Bunyameen Tunde - July 3, 2017 Reply

    Thank you. Very educating but I have a question which goes thus:'Are non selective herbicides like glyphosate also systemic and/or used as a pre planting herbicide or not'? And also,how do we know how/when to apply the herbicides based on its mode of action?

  2. yes, it can be used as preplanting herbicides. preplanting herbicides are used before weeds emerge. it is commonly applied immediately after planting.

  3. Anonymous - July 22, 2017 Reply

    Can atrazine be used as post-emergence herbicide in cassava

  4. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - July 22, 2017 Reply

    yes, it can. for more effective action, you can use it with glyphosphate

  5. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - July 27, 2017 Reply

    use glyphosphate with atrazine

  6. ma'aruf R - July 28, 2017 Reply

    This comment has been removed by the author.

  7. ma'aruf R - July 28, 2017 Reply

    This comment has been removed by the author.

  8. Faisal Shawai - July 30, 2017 Reply

    Base on the article I can use galex on my cowpea farm without affecting the cowpea right?

  9. Ibrahim Hassan Umar - August 2, 2017 Reply

    My farm is mixed crop of maize and cassava and both has started germination, please which herbicide will I use for control of weeds?

  10. Wch Herbicide can be used for control of weeds in a mixed farm of cassava and maize.

  11. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - August 9, 2017 Reply

    yes

  12. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - August 9, 2017 Reply

    you are supposed to apply herbicides immediately after planting. looking at your situation now, i will advise you to adopt manual weeding.

  13. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - August 9, 2017 Reply

    use glyphospate and atrazine powder, but note, they are both pre-emergence herbicides

  14. Anonymous - August 14, 2017 Reply

    I have also ran into that trouble of not using herbicide at preemergence stage on my cassava farm. It's about 3weeks already after planting and I have agreed to doing manual weeding anyway. But am also asked to use herbicide after manual weeding. How do I apply it? Can I do it myself? How long will it keep the weed away after application?

  15. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - August 14, 2017 Reply

    yes, you can do it yourself. use preemergence herbicides, it will keep your farm off weed for about 3 months.

  16. Unknown - September 4, 2017 Reply

    Is it possible not to use manual weeding at all for cassava intercropped with maize, I mean using herbicides only. What can I do to prevent the plants from being damaged during postemergence application of herbicides

  17. Oluwafemi Niran - September 4, 2017 Reply

    Is it possible not to use manual weeding at all for cassava intercropped with maize, I mean using herbicides only. What can I do to prevent the plants from being damaged during postemergence application of herbicides

  18. Peter Bello - September 5, 2017 Reply

    Very good write-up and a nice job you are doing here. Keep it up. I just harvested my maize and I want to kill off the weeds before planting cassava. What is the best herbicide combinations I can use please?

  19. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 6, 2017 Reply

    Thank you very much. It is very possible you use only herbicides on your cassava farm but it has to start from land preparation. After clearing, ploughing and harrowing your land, you plant. immediately after planting you apply pre-emergence herbicides. this will keep your land off weeds for about 3months. by then, your cassava plants would have grown taller and able to suppress the weeds. you can't totally eradicate the weeds but what you are required to do is to suppress them greatly.

    i hope this helps. thanks.

  20. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 6, 2017 Reply

    Thank you,
    in this case, i will advise you to use glyphosphate.

  21. Michael Adenigba - September 7, 2017 Reply

    My cassava farm was weeded going to 3 weeks ago now. That was the first weeding after planting. Can i still use atrazine now to keep weeds away for the next 2 to 3 month to reduce cost incurred if manual weeding is applied? Thanks

  22. Anonymous - September 10, 2017 Reply

    Hi, please I've got a question. Can you Convince me why i should mix altrazine xtra force and contact herbicide grass cutter on a just planted cassava farm (two days ago) is it good to mix the two or not to mix them after. I need your urgent reply, please.

  23. Anonymous - September 10, 2017 Reply

    A cassava farm planted two to three weeks ago is attached by weed. How can the weed be controlled?

  24. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 10, 2017 Reply

    Mix the two for effectiveness and higher concentration. I hope this helps

  25. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 10, 2017 Reply

    You can use manual weeding or chemical. For chemical, you can still use glyphosate; it is best you cover flit your cassava if they haven't grown too high.

  26. Anonymous - September 11, 2017 Reply

    What do you mean by cover flit? Of course they're just coming off the soil

  27. Unknown - September 12, 2017 Reply

    What kind of herbicide can I used to control a farm planted with potatoes,cassava and maize where by weeds has dominated the farm? Pls, I need a fast response.

  28. Michael Adenigba - September 12, 2017 Reply

    What do you mean by cover flit pls?

  29. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 13, 2017 Reply

    yes, you can. mix it with glyphosate for effective action.

  30. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 13, 2017 Reply

    Cover fliting is done when the crops are still very young; you just cover all the plants preferably with plastic bowl, just the portion of the crops and spray your field. what you are preventing is contact of the chemical and your crops. i hope this helps.

  31. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 13, 2017 Reply

    Cover fliting is done when the crops are still very young; you just cover all the plants preferably with plastic bowl, just the portion of the crops and spray your field. what you are preventing is contact of the chemical and your crops. i hope this helps.

  32. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 13, 2017 Reply

    what you have done is wrong. you can't plant cassava and potatoes together. in this case, do manual weeding; if you use chemicals, you will kill your plants.

    • Bartholomew Joshua - April 9, 2020 Reply

      Pls what type of chemical can I used for pre emergency wed control on my farm with maize and cassava. And how many months can wed start to germinate after application.

      Pls another question goes thus; which types of cassava and maize variety is the best to give a good yield

  33. Ashinwo Victor - September 21, 2017 Reply

    Pls i planted corn 2 weeks ago after plowing and am currently intercropping it wt cassava but i hv little weeds germinating around. Shld i just spray atrazine herbicide as am planting d cassava or spray afterd cassava has sprouted

  34. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 22, 2017 Reply

    hello, spray it after planting your cassava. do not allow it to sprout.

  35. Anonymous - September 24, 2017 Reply

    Hi,what kind of herbicide can I use to control weed in a maize farm that I might just have to weed once if at all.Thank you

  36. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 24, 2017 Reply

    use pre-emergence herbicide like glyphosate and atrazine.

  37. Michael Adenigba - September 24, 2017 Reply

    So you have a group of experts who do the spraying for a fee?

  38. Michael Adenigba - September 24, 2017 Reply

    Do you have…..

  39. Benjamin - September 28, 2017 Reply

    Plz I will like to know the selective chemical I can us for cassava.the farm has been hand weeded but the weed keep growing too fast.is there any chemical I can use to control the weeds?

  40. kevwe - September 28, 2017 Reply

    your article has been very very helpful , i have really gained alot! i virtually jotted all ur write ups! kudos to you!

  41. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 29, 2017 Reply

    Thank so much! Endeavor to share too

  42. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 29, 2017 Reply

    use any of the herbicides highlighted above. Thanks

  43. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - September 29, 2017 Reply

    I am so sorry for my late response. I dont know any for now.

  44. mackarious peter jnr - October 6, 2017 Reply

    Nice work quadri,but if your stem is followed people will end up with specific weed problem which will be labour intensive.

  45. Ebenezer Falodun - October 18, 2017 Reply

    Weldone. I planted maize on my entire farm and cassava on half (bcos of stem shortage). I weeded 3 weeks ago. Now i want to plant d remaining cassava but weeds are up again. What chemicals do i use? 2 when do i apply it, b4 or after planting? Thanks

  46. Olaboopo Mubarak - October 18, 2017 Reply

    I planted my cassava about 7 days ago and I applied diuron today to control the weed, hope have not done something wrong

  47. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - October 24, 2017 Reply

    no sir, i do not think so. it is far effective

  48. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - October 24, 2017 Reply

    apply glyphosate and diuron. Apply before planting

  49. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - October 24, 2017 Reply

    if it doesn't come in contact with your crop, no problem but 7 days after is much, you should apply the next day or latest third day. thanks

  50. Osadare Cyril - October 27, 2017 Reply

    I just plant my yam and I intend to use herbicides. Which should I use and when and how long is the effect. I want the one with longer effect

  51. Olaboopo Mubarak - October 30, 2017 Reply

    It do come in contact but I thought diuron is selective to cassava

  52. Michael Adenigba - October 31, 2017 Reply

    Is it required you use fertilizer after applying weed chemicals on your cassava farm?

  53. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - October 31, 2017 Reply

    You should apply fertilizer after herbicides to allow the crops utilize the fertilizer optimally.

  54. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - October 31, 2017 Reply

    that does not mean it should come in contact with the crop parts, especially the leaves.

  55. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - October 31, 2017 Reply

    use a pre-emergence herbicide, like glyphosate

  56. Unknown - November 1, 2017 Reply

    Well sir I must say I enjoy reading your article. Pls what chemical can I use to kill the grass in front of my compound? No plants just only weeds. Pls tell me the name chemical and where to get it in lagos. I want a very strong chemical that will be able to kill all the grass. Thanks. Michael from Lagos.

  57. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - November 2, 2017 Reply

    Thank you very much sir, get ForceUP. You can get it any any agro store in mile 12 or sabo market, ikorodu

  58. Anonymous - November 7, 2017 Reply

    I have a rice farm what chemical should I use to eliminate the weeds in the field?

  59. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - November 8, 2017 Reply

    You really need to be careful here, because rice is from the grass family. i recommend a manual weeding in this case

  60. Omoniyi Lawal - November 11, 2017 Reply

    Boss, pls which selective herbicide can I use on beans farm ? And also on ugwu farm . Thanks

  61. Omoniyi Lawal - November 11, 2017 Reply

    Boss, pls which selective herbicide can I use on beans farm ? And also on ugwu farm . Thanks

  62. Omoniyi Lawal - November 11, 2017 Reply

    This comment has been removed by the author.

  63. Omoniyi Lawal - November 11, 2017 Reply

    Boss, pls which selective herbicide can I use on beans farm ? And also on ugwu farm . Thanks

  64. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - November 18, 2017 Reply

    Do not use herbicides for any leafy vegetables like ugu. as for the beans, you can use Galex but bean is a cover crop, it will suppress weeds if you can try manual weeding. thanks

  65. bello ilesanmi - November 26, 2017 Reply

    Thanks Quadri, your article is incisive!

  66. Anonymous - November 28, 2017 Reply

    helo master quadri i really enjoy ur class how ever i cultivate entirely different crops compared to what every one has commented one , my plants are plantain, paw paw and pepper but i intend to plant plantain now and inter-cropped with cassava so i want to seek ur advice how do i go about the planting and when do i need to use herbicide or shld i separate the crops like i hv done b4 now and for my plantain hat is stand alone like 5 months now wch herbicides that is best for it to b used thanks

  67. Haruna - December 2, 2017 Reply

    Thank for your work here. Please am planning to cultivate pepper and water melon next season. Although they would be on different plots of land. Which herbicides can i use to adequately control weeds on these farms and should they be sprayed pre emergence?

  68. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - December 3, 2017 Reply

    Yes, Use any of the pre-emergence herbicides stated above. Also, ensure you prepare your land adequately before spraying, it will aid the efficiency of the herbicide.

  69. Sisanmiworitse Okorodudu - December 18, 2017 Reply

    You tell everyone to use glyphosate. Are you aware of its apparent dangers to human health?

  70. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - December 18, 2017 Reply

    Thanks for your observation. Personally, am an advocate of organic farming, i sternly detest the use of chemicals, however, you would agree with me that some situations in farm require the use of chemicals. Chemical is very effective in controlling weeds and pest. Glyposate in unarguably the most recommended and most effective active ingredient in controlling weeds, that is why i tell people to use it. On the issue if its apparent danger, it has dosage farmers must adhere to. With the recommended dosage their apparent dangers are mitigated.

  71. I have plantain farm and I want to add cassava which chemicals do I use

  72. Olaboopo Mubarak - February 26, 2018 Reply

    good day, pls my soybean plants have been attacked by sudden death syndrome, please what is the way forward and what can be done to prevent further occurence as am preparing to plant new seeds

  73. Tokunbo - April 1, 2018 Reply

    Good day sir. S how many plots can one liter of herbiside successfully cover?

  74. Tokunbo Akiyegun - April 1, 2018 Reply

    Good day sir. S how many plots can one liter of herbiside successfully cover?

  75. perry salabiu - April 3, 2018 Reply

    Pls, I need your help to know which herbicide I can use for waterlmon and cucumber.

  76. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - April 5, 2018 Reply

    This combination is not good. Find another

  77. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - April 5, 2018 Reply

    Plant resistant variety

  78. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - April 5, 2018 Reply

    Use only pre-emergence but i Dont advise herbicides for cucumber.

  79. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - April 5, 2018 Reply

    You will see the dosage information on the label attached to the herbicide container

  80. perry salabiu - April 5, 2018 Reply

    Thanks for your replay,meanwhile can atrazin nd glysophate be used as pre emergence on cucumber planted a day ago,bt ofcourse the seed isn't germinating yet.

  81. Agbabiaka AbdulQuadri - April 5, 2018 Reply

    Yes. They can

  82. perry salabiu - April 6, 2018 Reply

    Thanks for your reply,I really appreciate the effort you are making here.

  83. Jide Chukwunonso - April 22, 2018 Reply

    This is very educating.
    Please I need help.
    Can I get names of fertilizers containing weed killer chemicals ??

  84. ADEPOJU Akeem - April 22, 2018 Reply

    Please I need your urgent help. I want to go into agriculture business for the first time and having 2acres which am planting cassava and maize, so I need procedure to follow in pre and post emergence in chemical method. Thanks

  85. Onyeka Okoye - May 7, 2018 Reply

    Good day pls I just inter cropped yam,maize and cassava in my farm and they have started sprouting, which selective herbicide do I use and method of use thanks.

  86. Can I use altrazine and by glyphosphat e on my cassava farm without killing the crop?

  87. Kessy - June 14, 2018 Reply

    Good day, i planted maize is about one month plus now and want to broadcast rice on the same land. What type of weed control should i use.

  88. Good morning, I have a plantain farm and I want to intercrop with watermelon, I have just weeded the place, whats the best herbicide to use and can I spray befor planing the watermelon or after planting the watermelon?

  89. Fatima Yusuf - August 5, 2018 Reply

    Am in need of ur assistant and is there no any herbicides that will work for both maize and cassava for post planting herbicides. My farm was large and have used glyphosate with attrazine as pre planting herbicides but to my surprise after two weeks its look as if I didn't spray any herbicides. Then I apply labourers weeding which is hoeing in order to remove d broad leaves and d grasses but to my surprise the farm has also grow this same weeds and I used d farm last year which am using this yr again. Now am tired of weeding and initially I forgot to apply d maize herbicides b4 planting cassava. My question now is that haven't d agriculturist develop another herbicides for mixed cropping of cassava and maize or other herbicides which will kill any kind of herbicides on mixed cropping.

  90. Unknown - August 5, 2018 Reply

    This comment has been removed by the author.

  91. Anonymous - August 15, 2018 Reply

    for now, there is not herbicide for such. that is why it is recommended to apply herbicide immediately after harvest. you can con tact the admin for further assistance.

  92. FERDINAND OBINNA - August 16, 2018 Reply

    I went to agrochemical dealers 4 pre emergence herbicideherbicide for late maize. I was given squash which contains 276 g of paraquat. When I asked the amount toto mix, I was asked to use 1 and half of the cup for 16L back sprayer. Pls hw right is that?

  93. Greener Grass - August 22, 2018 Reply

    Excellent Post! Thanks for sharing such a great post. Really helpful. Keep up the great work. Fertilizer and Weed Control

  94. […] by inhibiting or killing the fungus causing the disease. When we talk about weeds, we think of herbicides, same also for bacteria and rodents, we talk about bactericides and rodenticides respectively. […]

  95. […] intervene; your intervention is in the form of manual or mechanical weeding or using herbicides. Herbicides are used to control […]

  96. Ignatius Okoro - April 15, 2019 Reply

    Great article ever. Please i will love to contact you in person. mrignatiusokoro@gmail.com

  97. Afolabi Odunayo - April 16, 2019 Reply

    Good article here.But how can l contact you,pls? Afmod04@yahoo.com
    07038757742

  98. […] the seed is irrelevant. What most farmers are familiar with is crop protection, through the use of herbicides and […]

  99. […] you can adopt in your farm irrespective of your scale of production. The use of chemicals like herbicides, pesticides, etc. are common in a commercial farm; however, crop rotation is also very effective […]

  100. […] in your homes, farm or workplace. The control of weeds is a must prior to and after planting. Herbicides are the known chemicals used to control weeds […]

  101. Adegboyega Akeem - May 4, 2019 Reply

    Pls weeds have taken over my melon farm. Pls which herbicide will I use to control weeds now?

  102. […] in other words, it is a system where all planting aids used in terms of fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides; to enhance good crop yield are natural and not synthetic materials. Organic farming can be easy […]

  103. Rapheal - May 22, 2019 Reply

    Well done sir , could pre emergent chemical be used in un cultivated / plan land and be effective like that of cultivated land.

    • Agbabiaka Abdulquadri - May 22, 2019 Reply

      Of course yes, it is specifically for uncultivated land

  104. Seun - May 28, 2019 Reply

    Well done sir, please I was told that powdered chemical mixed with liquid one are effective in killing the weeds and their seeds. Can my crop seeds like maize and groundnuts be affected if I apply these chemicals two days after planting because I was told to apply first and wait for 10days before planting! Thanks.

  105. Seun - May 28, 2019 Reply

    Well done sir, please can my crop seeds(maize and groundnuts) be affected if I apply powdered plus liquid chemicals like two days after planting. I was told to apply first and wait for 10days before planting. Thanks.

  106. Seun - May 28, 2019 Reply

    Morning sir, pls, can my seedlings( maize and groundnuts) be affected if powdered chemical mixed with glyphosate are applied 1 or 2 days after planting? I was told to apply first and wait for 10days before planting. Thanks.

    • Agbabiaka Abdulquadri - May 28, 2019 Reply

      it should not be up to 10 days after planting. 3 days is enough.

  107. Makanjuola Olugbenga - May 29, 2019 Reply

    Good evening sir. I applied force up herbicide on my farm of 21 days maise today. After getting home, someone told me that those maize will be destroyed. I didn’t spray on it but around it. Is it true? Thank you sir

    • Agbabiaka Abdulquadri - May 29, 2019 Reply

      Yes. You applied very late.

    • Samuel Adesope - May 29, 2019 Reply

      To avoid waste of time and money, as early as possible tomorrow, go and plant another maize on the field to replace the 21st day old one because the will definitely die within a week, if you plan another one immediately, you were good to go.

  108. Samuel Adesope - May 29, 2019 Reply

    I read your article and quite educative, where can I get the basegram for rice and maize you mentioned in the article?

  109. Makanjuola Olugbenga - May 30, 2019 Reply

    But sir, I didn’t let the herbicide touch the maize. I just sprayed on the surrounding weeds

  110. […] instance, in crop production; you need to measure your herbicides and pesticides before application to avoid toxicity and detrimental effects. Also in animal […]

  111. Olaniyi Olaide Matthew - June 30, 2019 Reply

    Good Morning.

    I am about to plant plantain suckers and I want to know which herbicide to use and how it should be used.

    Should I apply before planting the suckers or after planting the suckers.

    How should I apply it? Will there be an effect on the plantain if the herbicide touches it when applying?

    Thanks.

  112. Hayat Badshah - July 15, 2019 Reply

    I would like to receive those information needed for weed control in crops.

  113. Paul - October 3, 2019 Reply

    Thanks for your article. It really enlighten me more about Agriculture. I’m new in farming. I just prepare about 10 acres of land for watermelon farming. Please which herbicide is the best to use before planting watermelon to keep weed away from the farm till harvest period. Pls I need your help urgent. Regard Paul.

  114. Paul - October 3, 2019 Reply

    I want to plant watermelon with okra. Which pre emergency herbicide is the best before planting them.

    • Agbabiaka Abdulquadri - October 3, 2019 Reply

      You can use glyphosate like force up and other brands

  115. […] Read more: HERBICIDES USED ON PLANTS; TYPES AND HOW THEY WORK […]

  116. Ogunleye aderemi - April 11, 2020 Reply

    Very good,l need more explanation

  117. Fabian - July 23, 2020 Reply

    Nice one. Good to know.

  118. Jegede Samuel - July 6, 2021 Reply

    The best seletive herbicide for rice farm, rice of one Month old and too much of grasses, please help.

    • The Admin - July 6, 2021 Reply

      Use any atrazine herbicide

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

error: Content is protected !!