Glässers Disease is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus parasuis, a small organism, of which there are at least fifteen different types. It is ubiquitous, found throughout the world and is present even in high health herds. If such herds are set up using SPF or MEW techniques and are free from Hps it can be devastating when they first become contaminated, producing an anthrax-like disease with high mortality in sows.
In the majority of herds in which the bacterium is endemic, sows produce a strong maternal immunity which normally persists in their offspring until 8 to 12 weeks of age and as a result, the effects of the infection in weaners are usually nil or very minimal. The pigs become sub-clinically infected when still protected and then stimulate their own immune response. If however the maternal immunity wears off before they become infected they may develop severe disease. It can however become a secondary organism where there are other major pathogens and in particular enzootic pneumonia. Outbreaks of disease are sometimes experienced in sucking pigs, particularly in gilt herds.
Haemophilus parasuis is normally isolated from the nasal cavity, tonsils, and trachea of healthy pigs.1,2 This organism can potentially invade the host and cause severe systemic infection characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, arthritis, and meningitis. The factors involved in systemic invasion by H parasuis have not been clearly defined.3 The potential interaction between H parasuis and some viral agents, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV),4 pseudorabies,5 and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2),6 has been investigated.
However, no direct association between any of these agents and H parasuis has been conclusively established. The relationships between H parasuis virulence and serovar,7 genotype,8 and whole-cell protein profiles9 have also been evaluated. Although virulent strains share similar genotype and protein profiles, no specific virulence factors have been described for H parasuis.
Features of Haemophilus Parasuis Vaccine Swine
Glässer’s Disease is a caused by the bacterium Haemophilus parasuis, which resides in the nasal cavity of most pigs and normally doesn’t cause illness. However, if the pigs become stressed and natural immunity begins to fade, the bacteria replicates at an enhanced rate resulting in disease. The disease is a form of blood poisoning (called septicaemia) and ultimately targets the serosal membranes (the lining of the chest, abdomen, brain cavity, heart sac and joints) of the pigs causing massive damage. While presentis present worldwide and its incidence appears to have increased since the introduction of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. Outbreaks normally result in high mortality, and if complicated by other diseases can reach 15%.
The disease typically presents as outbreaks of sudden deaths within the herd and classically these occur after cold nights following mild days (e.g. temperature stress); however, it may also be seen after animals encounter other ‘stressors’ such as another disease outbreak. Pigs found alive affected by Glässers will appear extremely ill, will be struggling to breathe, often have purple extremities, and they may display nervous symptoms while mildly affected pigs may present with coughing and swollen joints. Glässers Disease can affect pig of any age, but is mostly seen in weaners or growers.
The signs and symptoms of Glasser’s Disease are:
- Loss of appetite
- Labored breathing
- Nasal congestion/cough may be observed
- Lameness/Swollen, Painful joints
- Paddling and trembling
- Red to blue discoloration of the skin
- Death may occur within 2-5 day
- Pericarditis/Heart Failure
- Intestinal Obstruction due to fibrosis
Prices of Haemophilus Parasuis Vaccine Swine
325.95 – $90.75