In poultry, host-specific Salmonella infections cause fowl typhoid and pullorum disease, which are severe systemic diseases of chickens that result in severe problems and high mortality and produce economic losses in developing countries. Fowl typhoid and pullorum disease have reemerged in recent years in developing countries, and birds of any age can be infected. Developing countries have established sanitary measures and official programs to prevent and control both diseases; however, there are cyclic or seasonal outbreaks related to disease management. An overview of the current situation and future perspectives regarding live attenuated vaccines against fowl typhoid and pullorum disease are discussed.
The present book has been constructed to provide an overview of pattern of immune response of susceptible broiler chicks after Salmonella Gallinarum infection. The effect of experimentally induced Salmonella Gallinarum infection on total protein, albumen, globulin concentrations in serum and serum albumen-globulin ratio, antibody titer by indirect hemagglutination technique and IgG concentration by SRID techniques has also been highlighted. There is increase in concentrations of serum proteins and IgG levels and rise in antibody titer. Chickens are the natural hosts of Salmonella Gallinarum, the causative organism of fowl typhoid. Its host perimeter is limited to galiforme birds.
The causal agent of fowl typhoid is Salmonella enterica Gallinarum. The incidence of fowl typhoid is low in the USA, Canada, and some European countries but is much higher in other countries. Although S enterica Gallinarum is egg-transmitted and produces lesions in chicks and poults similar to those produced by S enterica Pullorum, there is a much greater tendency to spread among growing or mature flocks. Mortality in young birds is similar to that seen in S enterica Pullorum infection but may be higher in older birds. It is a live, freeze-dried vaccine. It has been lyophilized (freeze-dried) in vials and sealed under vacuum to preserve stability. It is supplied with diluent.
A live, freeze-dried vaccine for the active immunization of healthy layer and breeder birds, as an aid in the prevention of Salmonella gallinarum (Fowl Typhoid) and Salmonella pullorum infections and this vaccine can also be used for chicks to stimulate active cross protection against infections caused by other Salmonella of Group D such as Salmonella enteritidis. For both initial vaccination and revaccination.
The most satisfactory vaccination schedule may vary from one area to another, depending on such factors as the incidence of disease and concentration of poultry flocks. The following vaccination schedules would be applicable to most areas but may be tailored to local conditions. The initial vaccination can be given from an age of 6 to 8 weeks followed by a booster between the ages of 14 and 16 weeks of age. The second dose should be given at least 2 weeks prior to onset of lay.
- Preparation of vaccineMixing is carried out by drawing small quantities of diluent in the sterile syringe and then injecting this diluent in a freeze dried vaccine vial. Shake the vial well and allow to rehydrate the freeze-dried pellet and then draw rehydrated vaccine and transfer it to the diluent bottle. Rinse the vaccine vial 2 times with the diluent in similar manner as referred above. Follow aseptic technique during reconstitution. Reconstituted vaccine should be stored on ice and should be used immediately within four hours.
Dosage & Administration
The dose is 0.2 ml per fowl via the subcutaneous route. Care should be taken to avoid self-injection. Use aseptic technique. The dose is 0.2 ml per fowl and is administered via the subcutaneous route. The preferred site is under the skin on the back of the neck midway between the head and the body and in a direction away from the head. Do not inject near the head. Do not inject into muscle tissue or the neck vertebra.
- Vaccinate only healthy birds, which have attained recommended body weight of the age group
- Use entire contents when a vial is first opened
- Burn all vials and unused contents
- Keep permanent vaccination records including vaccine batch number
- To maintain the quality of this product, it is essential that the directions and precautions for storage, handling and use be carefully followed
- Wash & disinfect hands with a disinfectant after vaccination
Price of Fowl Typhoid Vaccine