The past decade has been an exciting period for foot and mouth disease (FMD) control and elimination efforts. The progressive control pathway for FMD (PCP-FMD) was developed to provide a novel stepwise methodology for a risk management and cost effective approach to FMD control. The PCP-FMD contributed significantly to the FAO-OIE Global Control Strategy (2012), whereby it represented the backbone for its implementation. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) continue to encourage and support their membership in making FMD control a feasible option to reduce its impact on food security and safe trade and to contribute to improved livelihoods. Foot and mouth disease remains endemic in many countries in most parts of Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Any FMD outbreak can have potentially devastating impacts on farmers with adverse effects on livestock assets, production income, available nutrition and consumption.
Vaccine is one of the main tools proven to better manage or eliminate the disease when properly applied and with desirable quality and composition. It is imperative that up-to-date information on circulating virus strains in any geographical location be known for selection of appropriate vaccine strains. Typically, the cost of vaccine and vaccination represents over 90% of the total expense of FMD control so that it is essential to plan and evaluate vaccine and vaccination effectiveness to convince decision makers, including the most important – farmers – to maintain rigorous vaccination efforts. The guidelines herein are developed under the auspices of FAO and OIE to advise on the principles of FMD vaccine/ vaccination monitoring and best practices for vaccine application with the focus on how to evaluate and ensure the success of the vaccination programmes. These guidelines are presented from experts’ viewpoint to determine the vaccine effectiveness against the circulating FMD viruses, which directly affect multiple cloven-hoofed species and can indirectly cripple local and global commerce.
The vaccine contains a mixture of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O, A, Asia 1, propagated in cell culture. It is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids. The virus causes a high fever for approximately two to six days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness. Susceptible animals include cattle, water , sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, deer, and bison. It has also been known to infect hedgehogs and elephants; In laboratory experiments, mice, rats, and chickens have been successfully infected by artificial means, but they are not believed to contract the disease under natural conditions. Humans are very rarely infected.
Animals should be in good health at the time of vaccination. Do not vaccinate animals which are already in stress (Like bad weather, Scarcity of fodder & water, Disease outbreaks, after transportation etc.)
Try to deworm animals & remove ecto-parasites one to two weeks prior to vaccination.
Strictly follow vaccination schedule after consultation with veterinary experts.
Keep records of vaccination for name of vaccine manufacturing company, Batch number, Expiry date, Dose & route of vaccine.
Maintain cold chain for vaccines which may have to keep for 2-8 degree Celsius temperature.
Create stress free environment for animals after vaccination.