A vaccine bank is a strategic reserve of frozen vaccine antigen concentrate that a company can quickly formulate into a vaccine in the event of a disease outbreak. The terms “vaccine bank” and “antigen bank” often are used interchangeably. The antigen in an FMD vaccine is the active ingredient, the substance that triggers an immune response. Because FMD has such broad potential economic impact, governments typically manage disease-control efforts and programmed use of vaccines. Many countries own FMD vaccine banks to allow for a rapid response. Should an outbreak occur, they can use antigen concentrate to produce finished vaccine in a week or so. Without an antigen bank stockpile, teams would have to produce new FMD vaccines from scratch. That would allow FMD to spread faster than a company could make vaccine.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed ruminants. It is a transboundary animal disease (TAD) that deeply affect the production of livestock and disrupting regional and international trade in animals and animal products. The disease is estimated to circulate in 77% of the global livestock population, in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as in a limited area of South America. Countries that are currently free of FMD without vaccination remain under constant threat of an incursion. Seventy-five percent of the costs attributed to FMD prevention and control are incurred by low income and lower-middle income countries. Africa and Eurasia are the regions which incur the largest costs, accounting for 50% and 33% of the total costs respectively. FMD is caused by an Aphthovirus of the family Picornaviridae, seven strains (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia1) are endemic in different countries worldwide. Each strain requires a specific vaccine to provide immunity to a vaccinated animal. Its prevention is based on the presence of early detection and warning systems and the implementation of effective surveillance among other measures. FMD is the first disease for which the OIE established an official list of disease-free countries which can be officially recognised as free of the disease either in their entirety or in defined zones and compartments.
Uses/benefits of Fmd Vaccine For Goat
The vaccine contains a mixture of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O, A, Asia 1, propagated in cell culture. It is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids. The virus causes a high fever for approximately two to six days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness.
Susceptible animals include cattle, water , sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, deer, and bison. It has also been known to infect hedgehogs and elephants; In laboratory experiments, mice, rats, and chickens have been successfully infected by artificial means, but they are not believed to contract the disease under natural conditions. Humans are very rarely infected. The virus is genetically highly variable, which limits the effectiveness of vaccination.