Although present conventional foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines can prevent clinical disease, protection is short lived ( approximately 6 months), often requiring frequent revaccination for prophylactic control, and vaccination does not induce rapid protection against challenge or prevent the development of the carrier state. Furthermore, it is clear that the clinical protection depends upon the length of immunization and the duration of exposure/challenge methods.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed ruminants. Intensively reared animals are more susceptible to the disease than traditional breeds. The disease is rarely fatal in adult animals, but there is often high mortality in young animals due to myocarditis or, when the dam is infected by the disease, lack of milk. FMD is characterised by fever and blister-like sores on the tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves. The disease causes severe production losses, and while the majority of affected animals recover, the disease often leaves them weakened and debilitated.
Vaccines play a crucial role in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and are widely used throughout the world1. Whilst FMD has been eradicated in Turkish Thrace, mass vaccination has failed to control the disease in the rest of the country (). FMD vaccination in Turkey typically consists of biannual mass vaccination of cattle. Most farms in Anatolia are smallholdings dependent upon communal grazing, and vaccination should be performed before animals are turned out for spring grazing and at the end of the grazing season in autumn, with cattle typically housed over winter.
Features of Fmd Vaccination In Cattle
While some countries have used live FMD vaccine, only killed vaccines that have been evaluated for purity, potency, safety, and efficacy according to established criteria would be used in Canada . All FMD vaccines are derived from viruses that have been grown in tissue culture and inactivated, and have had an adjuvant added . Inactivation is achieved by treatment with binary ethyleneimine, which has been shown to be highly effective for this purpose .
An animal could not be a source of live FMD virus as a consequence of vaccination with properly inactivated vaccine, unless it had been exposed to infection before vaccination, under which circumstances administration of vaccine could not be expected to prevent virus amplification . Thus, it is important that animals are vaccinated before they have been exposed to infection. This is best achieved by following protocols that specify appropriate circumstances for vaccination
Prices of Fmd Vaccination In Cattle
$47.95 – $167.57