Feline Calicivirus Vaccine

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a major pathogen of the domestic cat causing upper-respiratory tract infection, oral vesicular disease and chronic stomatitis. FCV is characterized by a high level of antigenic and pathogenic variation. Some new hypervirulent variants have recently emerged in North America causing a high rate of mortality, even in vaccinated cats

In spite of widespread vaccination, prevalence of FCV infection is still very high and current vaccines which reduce clinical signs and virus shedding may not protect against infection. Efficient vaccines able to reduce viral excretion would be expected to aid in decreasing FCV prevalence in the cat population. Unfortunately, attempts to improve the efficacy of FCV vaccines have failed so far. Second generation DNA or vectored vaccines have been shown to provide only partial clinical and virological protection . Mucosal immunization using feline herpesvirus vector containing the capsid gene of FCV failed to improve vaccine efficacy . Another challenge for the development of efficacious FCV vaccines is related to the high antigenic variability of the virus . In natural conditions, vaccinated animals are exposed to heterologous strains, and it is likely that current vaccines afford only protection against a fraction of the circulating FCV field isolates . Increasing heterologous protection against antigenically distant strains could therefore be a way to improve the efficacy of current vaccines.

Description

Calicivirus is a common virus in cats that causes upper respiratory infection. Feline calicivirus is resistant to many disinfectants and can survive outside a cat’s body for several days. Feline calicivirus is a highly contagious virus that causes a mild to severe respiratory infection and oral disease in cats. It is especially common in shelters and breeding colonies, and often infects young cats. Most cats recover completely after a calicivirus infection, but rare strains can be especially deadly. The virus poses no threat to humans.

Features of Feline Calicivirus Vaccine

FCV infections are frequently complicated by secondary bacterial infections, so supportive treatment with antibiotics is usually required. Good nursing care is critical and cats may need to be hospitalised for intravenous fluid therapy and nutritional support in severe cases. Steam inhalation or nebulisation may help in cases of severe nasal congestion and as the cat will not be able to smell food well, using tinned or sachet foods that are gently warmed will help.

In colonies of cats, any cat showing clinical signs should be isolated if at all possible, and strict hygiene should be ensured with disinfection, and use of separate feeding bowls, litter trays, implements etc, careful washing of hands, use of separate (or disposable) apron etc.

Benefits of Feline Calicivirus Vaccine

Vaccination for FCV is important for all cats. Two or three injections are recommended in kittens, starting at around 8 weeks of age. Cats should receive a booster at a year of age, and after that should receive further booster vaccines every 1-3 years.

Vaccination does not necessarily prevent infection with FCV but will greatly reduce the severity of clinical disease. Additionally, as there are many different strains of the virus, it is difficult to design a vaccine that will protect against all of them. Some newer vaccines incorporate more than one strain of FCV to provide a broader range of protection.

Dosage and administration

. Feline Upper Respiratory Disease Vaccines
VaccineTypeRoute
Herpesvirus-1 (FCV-1) + calicivirus (FCV)Modified-live virus; nonadjuvantedSubcutaneous
Herpesvirus-1 (FCV-1) + calicivirus (FCV)Killed virus; adjuvantedSubcutaneous
Herpesvirus-1 (FCV-1) + calicivirus (FCV)Modified-live virus; nonadjuvantedIntranasal (mucosal)
Bi-valent calicivirus (FCV)Killed virus; adjuvantedSubcutaneous
Bordetella bronchisepticaAvirulent, live bacteria; nonadjuvantedIntranasal ONLY
Chlamydophila felisAvirulent, live bacteria; nonadjuvantedSubcutaneous
Chlamydophila felisKilled bacteria; adjuvantedSubcutaneous

Prices of Feline Calicivirus Vaccine

$35.99 – $66.90

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