Enterotoxemia Vaccine In Goats

It is generally advised that all goats be vaccinated against overeating disease (enteroxemia) and tetanus. Both of these diseases are caused by clostridial bacteria present in animals and the environment. Goats kept on marginal pastures and/or not fed grain may be at much lower risk for overeating disease, but they are susceptible to tetanus. Vaccines used for these diseases usually provide protection for both diseases. These combination vaccines simplify herd preventive health programs and decrease costs.

Overeating disease is also known as enterotoxemia. It is an acute and often fatal disease affecting goats of all ages. The disease tends to be more deadly in young kids, and often in those which are the heaviest or fastest gaining. Overeating disease is caused by the bacteria Clostridium perfringens types C and D. These bacteria are commonly found in the soil, and are also present in the intestines of most normal goats. The deadly action of these clostridial bacterial organisms is related to the bacteria’s ability to produce toxins which cause shock and nervous symptoms (type D), or that cause inflammation of the lining of the gut and diarrhea with blood (type C). Under appropriate conditions, the clostridial bacteria in the gut rapidly grow to high levels and produce and release their deadly toxins. Most conditions favoring clostridial bacterial growth are related to access to a grain or “rich” feed, especially when the animal is not accustomed to the feed. Sudden access to grain or a richer diet or any dietary changes, especially to a “richer” diet, favors clostridial bacterial growth in the intestines. Changes in feeding programs must be gradual, with a week or two or more allowed for a change from one type of feed to another. It is also important to avoid over-consumption by kids, for example, after they have become excessively hungry.

Description

Enterotoxemia is a frequently severe disease of sheep and goats of all ages. It is caused by two strains of bacteria called Clostridium perfringens – the strains are termed types C and D. These bacteria are normally found in low numbers in the gastrointestinal tract of all sheep and goats. If that is so, when and why do they cause disease? These organisms are normally “laying low” in the small and large intestine – that is, they are present in relatively low numbers and appear to be in a relatively quiescent state in the normal, healthy animal. What appears to trigger them to cause disease is a change in the diet of the animal. Most commonly, the change that triggers disease is an increase in the amount of grain, protein supplement, milk or milk replacer (for lambs and kids), and/or grass that the sheep or goat is ingesting. Collectively, these feeds are rich in starch, sugar, and/or protein. When

unusually high levels of these nutrients reach the intestine, Clostridium perfringens undergoes explosive growth, increasing its numbers rapidly within the intestine. As the organism grows in number, it releases very potent toxins (bacterial poisons) that harm the animal. These toxins can cause damage to the intestine as well as numerous other organs. This can result in fatalities, particularly in the non-vaccinated animal or in the newborn lamb or kid whose dam has not been vaccinated.

Features of Enterotoxemia Vaccine In Goats

  • Entertoxemia is a frequently severe disease of sheep and goats of all ages.
  • Causative bacteria are present in relatively low numbers and appear to be in a relatively quiescent state in the normal, healthy animal.
  • Treatment may not be successful in severe cases.
  • Prevention of enterotoxemia is far more likely to be successful than trying to treat the disease.

Symptoms of Enterotoxemia In Goats

Overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens type D in the intestine of sheep and goats resulting in enterotoxemia are more likely to occur during the following conditions:

  • Excessive consumption of milk or feed with high concentrations of grain
  • When natural immunity is compromised such as when ill, recovering from an illness or stressed
  • When animals are heavily parasitized with gastrointestinal parasites, including nematodes, cestodes (tapeworms) and coccidia
  • When the ration is rich in carbohydrates (grains) and low in roughage
  • When motility of the gastrointestinal tract is reduced

Vaccination schedule for goats

S.No.Name of DiseaseTime Table
Primary vaccinationRegular Vaccination
1.AnthraxAt the age of 6 month for kid or lambOnce Annually (In Affected area only)
2.Haemorrhagic Septicemia (H.S.)At the age of 6 month for kid or lambOnce Annually Before monsoon
3.EnterotoxaemiaAt the age of 4 month for kid or lamb (If dam is vaccinated)At the age of 1st week for kid or lamb(If dam is not vaccinated)Before monsoon (Preferably in May). Booster vaccination after 15 days of first vaccination.
4.Black Quarter (B.Q)At the age of 6 month for kid or lambOnce Annually (Before monsoon)
5.P.P.R.At the age of 3 month for kid or lamb & aboveOnce in three years
6.Foot & mouth disease (F.M.D.)At the age of 4 month for kid or lamb & aboveTwice in a year (September & March)
7..Goat PoxAt the age of 3 month & above for KidOnce Annually (December month)
8.C.C.P.PAt the age of 3 month & above for Kid or lambOnce Annually (January month)

Prices of Enterotoxemia Vaccine In Goats

$18.59 –  $39.54

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