Disseminated adenoviral infection is frequently as sociated with fatal interstitial pneumonia in transplant recipients, children, and young animals. In calves, two types (types 3 and 5) of adenovirus appear to be more pathogenic than others, producing disease concentrated in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts of these animals. The occurrence of respiratory adenoviral infection has been reported in colostrum-deprived calves experimentally infected with bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3 However, these calves failed to produce signs of disease when they were at 1 week of age or older, except those that had undergone endobronchial inoculation with BAV-3. In considering the pathogenesis of BAV-3 in calves, it is interesting to investigate what factors in addition to age correlate with susceptibility.
The purpose of this study was to examine respiratory tissues from 7-day-old, dexamethasone (DM)-treated 1.5-month-old, and non–DM-treated 1.5-month-old calves inoculated endobronchially (EB) with BAV-3. Pathologic changes and the distribution of BAV-3 antigen, IgG-, IgM-, and IgA-containing B cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the pneumonic lesions were described using an immunoperoxidase technique. We also examined bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid for virus isolation, detection of viral inclusion bodies, and BAV-3 antigen in the desquamated epithelial cells.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic analogue of prednisolone having similar but more potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic action and diversified hormonal and metabolic effects. Modification of the basic corticoid structure as achieved in Dexamethasone Solution offers enhanced anti-inflammatory effect compared to older corticosteroids. The dosage of Dexamethasone Solution required is markedly lower than that of prednisone and prednisolone.
Dexamethasone Solution is intended for intravenous or intramuscular administration. Each mL contains 2 mg dexamethasone, 500 mg polyethylene glycol 400, 9 mg benzyl alcohol, 1.8 mg methylparaben and 0.2 mg propylparaben as preservatives, 4.75% alcohol, HCl and/or sodium hydroxide to adjust pH to approximately 4.9, Water for Injection q.s.
Dexamethasone Inj. is indicated for allergic reactions, myoglobinuria, toxinaemia, shock, stress and urticaria. Local treatment of arthritis, bursitis, distortions, peri-arthritis, tendinitis and tendovaginitis. Always combine with antibiotics in case of a bacterial infection.
Animals receiving Dexamethasone Solution should be under close observation. Because of the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids, signs of infection may be masked and it may be necessary to stop treatment until further diagnosis is made. Overdosage of some glucocorticoids may result in sodium retention, fluid retention, potassium loss and weight gain. Dexamethasone Solution may be administered to animals with acute or chronic bacterial infections providing the infections are controlled with appropriate antibiotic or chemotherapeutic agents.
Doses greater than those recommended in horses may produce a transient drowsiness or lethargy in some horses. The lethargy usually abates in 24 hours. Use of corticosteroids, depending on dose, duration and specific steroid may result in inhibition of endogenous steroid production following drug withdrawal. In patients presently receiving or recently withdrawn from systemic corticosteroid treatments, therapy with a rapidly acting corticosteroid should be considered in unusually stressful situations.
For intramuscular or intravenous injection.
- Horses, cattle : 5 – 15 ml per animal.
- Calves, foals, sheep, goats, pigs : 1 – 2.5 ml per animal.
- Cats, dogs : 0.1 – 1 ml per 10 kg bodyweight.
Higher dosing and repeat treatment only on advice of your veterinarian.
Meat : 8 days
Milk : 3 days
Prices of Dexamethasone For Calves With Pneumonia
$25.15 – $155.99