With lambing season right around the corner, shepherds need to start preparing now. The CDT vaccine is yet another management tool found in the shepherd’s toolbox that is used to protect small ruminants against clostridium perfringens types C and D as well as clostridium tetani (tetanus). Appropriate use of this vaccine is a safe, cheap, and an effective method used to control for clostridial diseases in your flock. Commonly referred to in the industry as the ‘overeating disease,’ clostridium perfringens types C and D are associated with feedstuffs and can lead to enterotoxemia. The bacteria that cause enterotoxemia are present in all animals, just at low population levels. Issues arise when these bacterial populations experience a rapid period of growth and proliferation due to an increase in actual bacterial numbers or due to a rapid change in the diet. As a result, the bacteria grow rapidly, toxins accumulate, and are then distributed throughout the body resulting in serious health issues or death.
For example, type C is commonly found around the farm living in the soil and manure pack. This is one reason why it is important to provide a clean lambing and nursing area. Lambs can contract this bacteria via direct contact with dirty surfaces or by nursing on dirty udders. Therefore, lambs that nurse excessively could be at higher risk as they are in frequent contact with a dirty udder. Animals with a type C infection may show signs of severe diahrrhea.
There are many diseases for which sheep and goats can be vaccinated, but there is only one universally-recommended vaccine, and it is for the clostridial diseases that commonly affect small ruminants. Clostridial diseases are fatal diseases that strike ruminant livestock suddenly, often causing death before any clinical signs are seen. Clostridia (bacteria) are widespread in the environment. They are normally found in the soil and feces. They are also present in the digestive tract and tissues of healthy animals. For these reasons, vaccination is the best way to prevent disease outbreaks.
Two clostridial vaccines are commonly used in sheep and goats: a 3-way vaccine called CDT; and an 8-way vaccine with the trade name Covexin®-8. CDT protects healthy sheep and goats against clostridium perfringins type C and D (overeating disease) and clostridium tetani (tetanus). Covexin®-8 protects against these same diseases, plus several additional clostridial diseases, including blackleg. The 3-way vaccine is probably all that’s needed on most sheep and goat farms.. Pregnant ewes and does should be vaccinated with the CDT (toxoid) during their last month of pregnancy, but at least two weeks before they are due to lamb/kid. First-time moms should be vaccinated twice in late pregnancy, 3 and 6 weeks before parturition. Rams, bucks, and wethers should receive an annual booster for CDT.
Features of Cdt Vaccine Dosage For Lambs
To confer passive immunity to lambs and kids through the colostrum, ewes and does should be vaccinated 2 to 4 weeks prior to parturition. Females giving birth for the first time should be vaccinated twice in late pregnancy, about four weeks apart. Maternal antibodies will protect lambs and kids for about two months, if offspring have ingested adequate colostrum. Lambs/kids should receive their first CDT vaccination when they are 6 to 8 weeks old, followed by a booster 2 to 4 weeks later. If pastured animals are later placed in a feed lot for concentrate feeding, producers should consider re-vaccinating them for enterotoxemia type D.
Lambs and kids whose dams were not vaccinated for C and D can be vaccinated with some success at two to three days of age and again in two weeks. However, later vaccinations will be more successful since colostral antibodies interfere with vaccinations at very young ages. A better alternative may be to vaccinate offspring from non-vaccinated dams at 1 to 3 weeks, with a booster 3 to 4 weeks later. Anti-toxins can provide immediate short-term immunity if dams were not vaccinated or in the event of disease outbreak or vaccine failure. Lambs and kids whose dams were not vaccinated for tetanus should be given the tetanus anti-toxin at the time of docking, castrating, and disbudding, especially if elastrator bands are used. Rams and bucks should be boostered annually with CDT.
Benefits of Cdt Vaccine Dosage For Lambs
The CDT vaccine is both inexpensive and very effective at preventing the quick and fatal consequences that can result from a clostridial infection. “The key here is vaccination and prevention rather than treatment because usually we are too late to treat it,” Gordon says.Types C and D are the culprits of enterotoxemia.
Recommended for the vaccination of healthy, susceptible sheep, goats and cattle against enterotoxemia and tetanus caused by the toxins of Clostridium perfringens Types C and D and Clostridium tetani. Although Cl. perfringens Type B is not a significant problem in the U.S.A., immunity may be provided against the beta and epsilon toxins elaborated by Cl. perfringens Type B. This immunity is derived from the combination of Type C (beta) and Type D (epsilon) fractions.
Bar Vac CD/T Dosage And Administration:
Cattle: Using aseptic technique, inject 5 mL subcutaneously. Repeat in 21 to 28 days and once annually.
Sheep and Goats: Using aseptic technique, inject 2 mL subcutaneously. Repeat in 21 to 28 days and once annually.
Prices of Cdt Vaccine Dosage For Lambs
$28.59 – $49.54