Brucella abortus vaccines play a central role in bovine brucellosis control/eradication programs and have been successfully used worldwide for decades. Strain 19 and RB51 are the approved B. abortus vaccines strains most commonly used to protect cattle against infection and abortion. However, due to some drawbacks shown by these vaccines much effort has been undertaken for the development of new vaccines, safer and more effective, that could also be used in other susceptible species of animals
Brucella abortus is a bacterium that causes brucellosis in cattle. B. abortus RB51 is a strain of this bacterium developed specifically for immunization of cattle against brucellosis to allow serological differentiation between naturally infected and vaccinated animals. Accidental human exposure to RB51, though uncommon, has resulted in development of symptoms consistent with brucellosis. Exposures have included needle sticks, eye and wound splashes, and contact with infected material.
Other vaccines, such as Brucella abortus S19 for cattle and B. melitensis Rev-1 for sheep and goats, can also cause infection in humans. Veterinarians and other medical staff performing immunizations in cattle should be aware of the risks and what to do when an exposure occurs. S19 and Rev-1 exposures should follow the same assessment guidance as for RB51. Serological monitoring is available for S19 and Rev-1 exposures.
Features of Brucella Vaccine In Cattle
Strain 19 is a live attenuated vaccine and the first B. abortus vaccine to be used extensively for bovine brucellosis control. In USA, this vaccine was used for more than five decades from 1941 and is still being used in several other countries Brucella abortus S19 was isolated in 1923 from milk of a Jersey cow by Dr John Buck This virulent culture was accidentally left out at room temperature for one year and when tested in guinea pigs showed lower virulence compared with previous tests. Subsequently, S19 showed to be highly successful in immunization of calves The efficacy of B. abortus S19 was proved by experimental tests in cattle and under field conditions . Its main characteristics are stable low pathogenicity, relatively high immunogenicity, and moderate antigenicity. Strain 19 is a smooth attenuated B. abortus biovar 1 that induces antibody response that cannot be distinguished from the antibody response induced by infection with field strains
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-side chain is an immunodominant antigen to which the majority of antibodies resulting from S19 immunization or natural infection are directed. Antibody titers resulting from vaccination may persist for a prolonged period in a small proportion of vaccinated calves: approximately two animals per 100 000 calfhood vaccinated ones . Residual antibody titers increase with the age at which the animal was vaccinated , and to address this issue, vaccination is usually performed on young female calves between three and eight months of age However, vaccination of this age group does not appear to significantly differ in immunity induced . Restriction on age of vaccination, due to the interference in the brucellosis diagnosis, is the main disadvantage of vaccination with S19. This has contributed greatly to their replacement by RB51 vaccine strain, which does not have this problem.
Prices of Brucella Vaccine In Cattle
$12.03 – $97.87