Bovine herpes virus 1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and was first reported in dairy cattle in California 70 years ago. IBR was later diagnosed worldwide . In the 1950s, a new manifestation of BoHV-1 infection, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV), was described in cows and bulls. At present, IBR/IPV causes a wide range of clinical signs (including abortion, infertility, respiratory problems, encephalitis, conjunctivitis, enteritis, and dermatitis) due to inflammatory processes affecting the respiratory, genital and other organ systems . BoHV-1 may establish latency and virus can be shed intermittently . The triggering factors for shedding in latent infection, which is a potential source of BoHV-1 infection in the herd, may include cattle movement, unfavorable weather conditions, and poor husbandry or diet . Virus shedding at reactivation can be reduced but not eliminated by vaccination
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a highly contagious, infectious respiratory disease that is caused by Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1). It can affect young and older cattle.
In addition to causing respiratory disease, this virus can cause conjunctivitis, abortions, encephalitis, and generalised systemic infections. IBR is characterised by acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. After the first infection, the virus is never fully removed. It stays behind in nerve cells in the brain as a life-long latent (hidden) infection. However, at times of stress the virus can begin to multiply again and may be re-excreted, generally from the nose and the eyes; an animal which has been infected can never be considered safe.
Purchase of infected animals is the main source of new infections. Diseases caused by the virus can be serious; therefore it is a barrier to international trade. Cattle with BoHV-1antibody cannot be exported to BoHV-1-free countries. Neither can they be accepted into an artificial insemination (AI) centre.
- Loss of appetite
- Hyperaemia of the mucosae
- Mucosla lesions
- Nasal discharge
- Drop in milk production
Feature of Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a disease characterized by acute inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. BoHV-1 infection can also sporadically cause abortion in cattle. BoHV-1 infection affects animal health and productivity causing significant economic losses to cattle producers. Its main significance is as a barrier to the export of live cattle to other regions or countries within Europe which have already eradicated the disease. It is also a significant disease for pedigree herds placing animals into AI stations. Bulls destined for use in AI are not permitted to have any antibodies to BoHV-1.
Prices of Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine