Anaplasmosis Vaccine Cattle

Anaplasmosis is an infectious disease of cattle that causes destruction of red blood cells. The disease is caused by a minute parasite, Anaplasma marginale, found in the red blood cells of infected cattle. It can be transmitted from infected animals to healthy animals by insects or by surgical instruments. Anaplasmosis can be divided into four stages: incubation, developmental, convalescent, and carrier. These stages and the symptoms associated with them are described below.

Description

Up to 17 different tick vector species (including DermacentorRhipicephalusIxodesHyalomma, and Argas) have been reported to transmit Anaplasma spp. Not all of these are likely significant vectors in the field, and it has been shown that strains of A marginale also coevolve with particular tick strains. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp are major vectors in Australia and Africa, and Dermacentor spp have been incriminated as the main vectors in the USA. After feeding on an infected animal, intrastadial or trans-stadial transmission may occur. Transovarial transmission may also occur, although this is rare, even in the single-host Rhipicephalus spp. A replicative cycle occurs in the infected tick. Mechanical transmission via biting dipterans occurs in some regions. Transplacental transmission has been reported and is usually associated with acute infection of the dam in the second or third trimester of gestation. Anaplasmosis may also be spread through the use of contaminated needles or dehorning or other surgical instruments.

There is a strong correlation between age of cattle and severity of disease. Calves are much more resistant to disease (although not infection) than older cattle. This resistance is not due to colostral antibody from immune dams. In endemic areas where cattle first become infected with A marginale early in life, losses due to anaplasmosis are minimal. After recovery from the acute phase of infection, cattle remain chronically infected carriers but are generally immune to further clinical disease. However, these chronically infected cattle may relapse to anaplasmosis when immunosuppressed (eg, by corticosteroids), when infected with other pathogens, or after splenectomy. Carriers serve as a reservoir for further transmission. Serious losses occur when mature cattle with no previous exposure are moved into endemic areas or under endemically unstable situations when transmission rates are insufficient to ensure that all cattle are infected before reaching the more susceptible adult age.

Features of Anaplasmosis Vaccine Cattle

Tetracycline is often used for clinical anaplasmosis. However it cannot be used in every country. General supportive care is also important for anemic animals. Blood transfusions are of limited benefit. The incubation time for the disease to develop varies from two weeks to over three months, but averages three to four weeks. Adult cattle are more susceptible to infection than calves.

The disease is generally mild in calves under a year of age, rarely fatal in cattle up to two years of age, sometimes fatal in animals up to three years of age, and often fatal in older cattle. Once an animal recovers from infection, either naturally or with normal therapy, it will usually remain a carrier of the disease for life. Carriers show no sign of the disease but act as sources of infection for other susceptible cattle.

Prevention

Typically, cases of anaplasmosis increase in late summer and fall as insect vectors increase. Therefore, control of vectors is key to preventing anaplasmosis. If necessary herd treatment with oxytetracycline injection every 3 to 4 weeks during high risk times may be necessary will prevent clinical disease but animals can become carriers. Chlortetracycline also known as CTC can reduce the risk of anaplasmosis. A consistent intake of the correct amount of mineral is crucial to a anaplasmosis prevention programme. CTC is available in medicated feed, free choice salt-mineral mixes or medicated blocks.

Prices of Anaplasmosis Vaccine Cattle

$33.66 – $127.29

Sharing is caring!

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

error: Content is protected !!