This organism causes severe pleuropneumonia which is a highly contagious disease of swine often characterized by sudden onset, short clinical course, high morbidity, and high mortality. Porcine pleuropneumonia (PPN; currently referred to as APP) is widely distributed throughout major swine-raising countries. It has been a major problem in many European countries and is relatively common in the United States, Canada and Asia. APP is restricted to swine. In naïve herds, APP occurs in all age groups but usually is seen in 6-20 week old pigs. Actinobacillus suis can cause similar disease and lesions but is not as contagious as Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP).
Piglets vaccinated with an inactivated tetravalent vaccine (Pleurovac 4) against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 2, 5 and 7, produced circulating antibodies after a first intramuscular injection and showed an anamnestic reaction after a second. The rise in antibody levels in vaccinated piglets was statistically significant when compared with those of the control group. The administration of 1 or 2 mL of vaccine did not lead to significantly different antibody levels. The specificity of the immune response is demonstrated by an increase in titer to all four serotypes in pigs given the tetravalent vaccine, but an increase in titer to only two serotypes in pigs given a bivalent vaccine (Pleurovac).
Signs vary considerably between acute and chronic forms of APP. In acute outbreaks, sudden deaths are common. The early signs include sudden onset of prostration, high temperatures, apathy, anorexia, stiffness, and perhaps vomiting and diarrhea. A shallow, nonproductive cough is occasionally present. As disease progresses, there is marked dyspnea with mouth breathing and, perhaps, a foamy, bloody discharge from the mouth and nose. There is early peripheral cyanosis of extremities. As circulation fails, generalized cyanosis follows. Morbidity and mortality in growing swine varies but can become high. Peak mortality usually occurs in pigs 10-16 weeks old. Mortality can reach 20-80% in fattening pigs. Abortions may occur in acutely infected pregnant females. Chronic cases may become apparent following an acute outbreak. Chronic cough and slow growth then are the usual signs due to the presence of pleural adhesions and abscesses that form in recovered lungs.
Features of Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae Vaccine Swine
COGLAPIX® is the only vaccine based on bacterial toxoids, that provides a strong protection against all the serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A.p.) and without specific post-vaccination reaction at the same time. In front of the variability of the serotypes present in the field, only toxoid vaccines provide a universal protection. But one vaccine should be safe for the piglets at the same time what is usually a drawback of vaccines against A.p. COGLAPIX® associates safety with universal protection and efficacy.
Benefits of Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae Vaccine Swine
- Bacterins (washed and killed whole bacteria): Protection given by this type of vaccine is serotype-specific: you need to know which serotype is involved in the farm. It is unusual (not impossible when different origins are mixed) to have more than one serotype causing disease in a single farm: a good diagnosis is needed. Antibodies raised against this vaccine are directed to “bacterial body antigens”: capsule, surface proteins, bacterial cell wall, etc. When these antibodies are present in the animal lung, they “attach” to bacteria and alveolar macrophages and other cells will ingest and destroy App. In the absence of these antibodies, phagocytic cells cannot “capture” App bacteria, which reproduce and produce, among other products, the toxins and cause lesions.
- Purified toxoid-based vaccines (sometimes enriched with surface proteins): ApxI, ApxII and ApxIII toxoids are present. Different strains of App produce one or two of these toxins. Protection given by this type of vaccine is usually against all serotypes, since all App strains produce one or two of the toxins included. Antibodies raised against this vaccine “neutralize” the toxins: just prevent them to cause lesions. Antibodies do not react with App bacteria: toxins are secreted. So, App can still reproduce in the lungs, although toxic effect of toxins is neutralized.
- “Mixed”: Bacterin (for specific serotypes) + purified toxoid-based vaccine: it is a combination of “1” and “2”. Antibodies produced are anti-toxins and anti-bacterial components (only for serotypes included in the vaccine).
- Administer only to healthy animals.
- Use sterile equipment for injection.
- Before use, it is advisable to keep the vaccine at 15-25°C for 1-2 hours.
- Shake well before and during use.
- Respect normal aseptic conditions.
- Once a bottle has been opened, its content must be used within 24 hours; otherwise it should be discarded.
- Do not mix the vaccine with any other vaccines or drugs.
- If the vaccine is accidentally injected to the operator, urgent medical attention is required.
- Keep out of reach of children.
Prices of Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae Vaccine Swine